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A Teacher's Guide to Thanksgiving: The REAL Story
(Footnotes at the bottom)
Written by Chuck Larsen

This is a particularly difficult introduction to write. I have been a public schools teacher for twelve years, and I am also a historian and have written several books on American and Native American history. I also just happen to be Quebeque French, Metis, Ojibwa, and Iroquois. Because my Indian a
ncestors were on both sides of the struggle between the Puritans and the New England Indians and I am well versed in my cultural heritage and history both as an Anishnabeg (Algokin) and Hodenosione (Iroquois), it was felt that I could bring a unique insight to the project.

For an Indian, who is also a school teacher, Thanksgiving was never an easy holiday for me to deal with in class. I sometimes have felt like I learned too much about "the Pilgrims and the Indians." Every year I have been faced with the professional and moral dilemma of just how to be honest and informative with my children at Thanksgiving without passing on historical distortions, and racial and cultural stereotypes.

The problem is that part of what you and I learned in our own childhood about the "Pilgrims" and "Squanto" and the "First Thanksgiving" is a mixture of both history and myth. But the THEME of Thanksgiving has truth and integrity far above and beyond what we and our forebearers have made of it. Thanksgiving is a bigger concept than just the story of the founding of the Plymouth Plantation.

So what do we teach to our children? We usually pass on unquestioned what we all received in our own childhood classrooms. I have come to know both the truths and the myths about our "First Thanksgiving," and I feel we need to try to reach beyond the myths to some degree of historic truth. This text is an attempt to do this.

At this point you are probably asking, "What is the big deal about Thanksgiving and the Pilgrims?" "What does this guy mean by a mixture of truths and myth?" That is just what this introduction is all about. I propose that there may be a good deal that many of us do not know about our Thanksgiving holiday and also about the "First Thanksgiving" story. I also propose that what most of us have learned about the Pilgrims and the Indians who were at the first Thanksgiving at Plymouth Plantation is only part of the truth. When you build a lesson on only half of the information, then you are not teaching the whole truth. That is why I used the word myth. So where do you start to find out more about the holiday and our modern stories about how it began?

A good place to start is with a very important book, "The Invasion of America," by Francis Jennings. It is a very authoritative text on the settlement of New England and the evolution of Indian/White relations in the New England colonies. I also recommend looking up any good text on British history. Check out the British Civil War of 1621-1642, Oliver Cromwell, and the Puritan uprising of 1653 which ended parliamentary government in England until 1660. The history of the Puritan experience in New England really should not be separated from the history of the Puritan experience in England. You should also realize that the "Pilgrims" were a sub sect, or splinter group, of the Puritan movement. They came to America to achieve on this continent what their Puritan bretheran continued to strive for in England; and when the Puritans were forced from England, they came to New England and soon absorbed the original "Pilgrims."

As the editor, I have read all the texts listed in our bibliography, and many more, in preparing this material for you. I want you to read some of these books. So let me use my editorial license to deliberately provoke you a little. When comparing the events stirred on by the Puritans in England with accounts of Puritan/Pilgrim activities in New England in the same era, several provocative things suggest themselves:

1. The Puritans were not just simple religious conservatives persecuted by the King and the Church of England for their unorthodox beliefs. They were political revolutionaries who not only intended to overthrow the government of England, but who actually did so in 1649.

2. The Puritan "Pilgrims" who came to New England were not simply refugees who decided to "put their fate in God's hands" in the "empty wilderness" of North America, as a generation of Hollywood movies taught us. In any culture at any time, settlers on a frontier are most often outcasts and fugitives who, in some way or other, do not fit into the mainstream of their society. This is not to imply that people who settle on frontiers have no redeeming qualities such as bravery, etc., but that the images of nobility that we associate with the Puritans are at least in part the good "P.R." efforts of later writers who have romanticized them.(1) It is also very plausible that this unnaturally noble image of the Puritans is all wrapped up with the mythology of "Noble Civilization" vs. "Savagery."(2) At any rate, mainstream Englishmen considered the Pilgrims to be deliberate religious dropouts who intended to found a new nation completely independent from non-Puritan England. In 1643 the Puritan/Pilgrims declared themselves an independent confederacy, one hundred and forty-three years before the American Revolution. They believed in the imminent occurrence of Armegeddon in Europe and hoped to establish here in the new world the "Kingdom of God" foretold in the book of Revelation. They diverged from their Puritan brethren who remained in England only in that they held little real hope of ever being able to successfully overthrow the King and Parliament and, thereby, impose their "Rule of Saints" (strict Puritan orthodoxy) on the rest of the British people. So they came to America not just in one ship (the Mayflower) but in a hundred others as well, with every intention of taking the land away from its native people to build their prophesied "Holy Kingdom."(3)

3. The Pilgrims were not just innocent refugees from religious persecution. They were victims of bigotry in England, but some of them were themselves religious bigots by our modern standards. The Puritans and the Pilgrims saw themselves as the "Chosen Elect" mentioned in the book of Revelation. They strove to "purify" first themselves and then everyone else of everything they did not accept in their own interpretation of scripture. Later New England Puritans used any means, including deceptions, treachery, torture, war, and genocide to achieve that end.(4) They saw themselves as fighting a holy war against Satan, and everyone who disagreed with them was the enemy. This rigid fundamentalism was transmitted to America by the Plymouth colonists, and it sheds a very different light on the "Pilgrim" image we have of them. This is best illustrated in the written text of the Thanksgiving sermon delivered at Plymouth in 1623 by "Mather the Elder." In it, Mather the Elder gave special thanks to God for the devastating plague of smallpox which wiped out the majority of the Wampanoag Indians who had been their benefactors. He praised God for destroying "chiefly young men and children, the very seeds of increase, thus clearing the forests to make way for a better growth", i.e., the Pilgrims.(5) In as much as these Indians were the Pilgrim's benefactors, and Squanto, in particular, was the instrument of their salvation that first year, how are we to interpret this apparent callousness towards their misfortune?

4. The Wampanoag Indians were not the "friendly savages" some of us were told about when we were in the primary grades. Nor were they invited out of the goodness of the Pilgrims' hearts to share the fruits of the Pilgrims' harvest in a demonstration of Christian charity and interracial brotherhood. The Wampanoag were members of a widespread confederacy of Algonkian-speaking peoples known as the League of the Delaware. For six hundred years they had been defending themselves from my other ancestors, the Iroquois, and for the last hundred years they had also had encounters with European fishermen and explorers but especially with European slavers, who had been raiding their coastal villages.(6) They knew something of the power of the white people, and they did not fully trust them. But their religion taught that they were to give charity to the helpless and hospitality to anyone who came to them with empty hands.(7) Also, Squanto, the Indian hero of the Thanksgiving story, had a very real love for a British explorer named John Weymouth, who had become a second father to him several years before the Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. Clearly, Squanto saw these Pilgrims as Weymouth's people.(8) To the Pilgrims the Indians were heathens and, therefore, the natural instruments of the Devil. Squanto, as the only educated and baptized Christian among the Wampanoag, was seen as merely an instrument of God, set in the wilderness to provide for the survival of His chosen people, the Pilgrims. The Indians were comparatively powerful and, therefore, dangerous; and they were to be courted until the next ships arrived with more Pilgrim colonists and the balance of power shifted. The Wampanoag were actually invited to that Thanksgiving feast for the purpose of negotiating a treaty that would secure the lands of the Plymouth Plantation for the Pilgrims. It should also be noted that the INDIANS, possibly out of a sense of charity toward their hosts, ended up bringing the majority of the food for the feast.(9)

5. A generation later, after the balance of power had indeed shifted, the Indian and White children of that Thanksgiving were striving to kill each other in the genocidal conflict known as King Philip's War. At the end of that conflict most of the New England Indians were either exterminated or refugees among the French in Canada, or they were sold into slavery in the Carolinas by the Puritans. So successful was this early trade in Indian slaves that several Puritan ship owners in Boston began the practice of raiding the Ivory Coast of Africa for black slaves to sell to the proprietary colonies of the South, thus founding the American-based slave trade.(10)

Obviously there is a lot more to the story of Indian/Puritan relations in New England than in the thanksgiving stories we heard as children. Our contemporary mix of myth and history about the "First" Thanksgiving at Plymouth developed in the 1890s and early 1900s. Our country was desperately trying to pull together its many diverse peoples into a common national identity. To many writers and educators at the end of the last century and the beginning of this one, this also meant having a common national history. This was the era of the "melting pot" theory of social progress, and public education was a major tool for social unity. It was with this in mind that the federal government declared the last Thursday in November as the legal holiday of Thanksgiving in 1898.

In consequence, what started as an inspirational bit of New England folklore, soon grew into the full-fledged American Thanksgiving we now know. It emerged complete with stereotyped Indians and stereotyped Whites, incomplete history, and a mythical significance as our "First Thanksgiving." But was it really our FIRST American Thanksgiving?

Now that I have deliberately provoked you with some new information and different opinions, please take the time to read some of the texts in our bibliography. I want to encourage you to read further and form your own opinions. There really is a TRUE Thanksgiving story of Plymouth Plantation. But I strongly suggest that there always has been a Thanksgiving story of some kind or other for as long as there have been human beings. There was also a "First" Thanksgiving in America, but it was celebrated thirty thousand years ago.(11) At some time during the New Stone Age (beginning about ten thousand years ago) Thanksgiving became associated with giving thanks to God for the harvests of the land. Thanksgiving has always been a time of people coming together, so thanks has also been offered for that gift of fellowship between us all. Every last Thursday in November we now partake in one of the OLDEST and most UNIVERSAL of human celebrations, and THERE ARE MANY THANKSGIVING STORIES TO TELL.

As for Thanksgiving week at Plymouth Plantation in 1621, the friendship was guarded and not always sincere, and the peace was very soon abused. But for three days in New England's history, peace and friendship were there.

So here is a story for your children. It is as kind and gentle a balance of historic truth and positive inspiration as its writers and this editor can make it out to be. I hope it will adequately serve its purpose both for you and your students, and I also hope this work will encourage you to look both deeper and farther, for Thanksgiving is Thanksgiving all around the world.

Chuck Larsen Tacoma Public Schools September, 1986



FOOTNOTES FOR TEACHER INTRODUCTION

(1) See Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's Indian," references to Puritans, pp. 27, 80-85, 90, 104, & 130.

(2) See Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's Indian," references to frontier concepts of savagery in index. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," the myth of savagery, pp. 6-12, 15-16, & 109-110.

(3) See Blitzer, Charles, "Age of Kings," Great Ages of Man series, references to Puritanism, pp. 141, 144 & 145-46. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," references to Puritan human motives, pp. 4-6, 43- 44 and 53.

(4) See "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," pp. 6-10. Also see Armstrong, Virginia I., "I Have Spoken," reference to Cannonchet and his village, p. 6. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," Chapter 9 "Savage War," Chapter 13 "We must Burn Them," and Chapter 17 "Outrage Bloody and Barbarous."

(5) See "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," pp. 6-9. Also see Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's Indian," the comments of Cotton Mather, pp. 37 & 82-83.

(6) See Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," pp. 3-4. Also see Graff, Steward and Polly Ann, "Squanto, Indian Adventurer." Also see "Handbook of North American Indians," Vol. 15, the reference to Squanto on p. 82.

(7) See Benton-Banai, Edward, "The Mishomis Book," as a reference on general "Anishinabe" (the Algonkin speaking peoples) religious beliefs and practices. Also see Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," reference to religious life on p. 1.

(8) See Graff, Stewart and Polly Ann, "Squanto, Indian Adventurer." Also see Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving." Also see Bradford, Sir William, "Of Plymouth Plantation," and "Mourt's Relation."

(9) See Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," the letter of Edward Winslow dated 1622, pp. 5-6.

(10) See "Handbook of North American Indians," Vol. 15, pp. 177-78. Also see "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," p. 9, the reference to the enslavement of King Philip's family. Also see Larsen, Charles, M., "The Real Thanksgiving," pp. 8-11, "Destruction of the Massachusetts Indians."

(11) Best current estimate of the first entry of people into the Americas confirmed by archaeological evidence that is datable.



A Teacher's Guide to Thanksgiving: The REAL Story
(Footnotes at the bottom)
Written by Chuck Larsen

This is a particularly difficult introduction to write. I have been a public schools teacher for twelve years, and I am also a historian and have written several books on American and Native American history. I also just happen to be Quebeque French, Metis, Ojibwa, and Iroquois. Because my Indian ancestors were on both sides of the struggle between the Puritans and the New England Indians and I am well versed in my cultural heritage and history both as an Anishnabeg (Algokin) and Hodenosione (Iroquois), it was felt that I could bring a unique insight to the project.

For an Indian, who is also a school teacher, Thanksgiving was never an easy holiday for me to deal with in class. I sometimes have felt like I learned too much about "the Pilgrims and the Indians." Every year I have been faced with the professional and moral dilemma of just how to be honest and informative with my children at Thanksgiving without passing on historical distortions, and racial and cultural stereotypes.

The problem is that part of what you and I learned in our own childhood about the "Pilgrims" and "Squanto" and the "First Thanksgiving" is a mixture of both history and myth. But the THEME of Thanksgiving has truth and integrity far above and beyond what we and our forebearers have made of it. Thanksgiving is a bigger concept than just the story of the founding of the Plymouth Plantation.

So what do we teach to our children? We usually pass on unquestioned what we all received in our own childhood classrooms. I have come to know both the truths and the myths about our "First Thanksgiving," and I feel we need to try to reach beyond the myths to some degree of historic truth. This text is an attempt to do this.

At this point you are probably asking, "What is the big deal about Thanksgiving and the Pilgrims?" "What does this guy mean by a mixture of truths and myth?" That is just what this introduction is all about. I propose that there may be a good deal that many of us do not know about our Thanksgiving holiday and also about the "First Thanksgiving" story. I also propose that what most of us have learned about the Pilgrims and the Indians who were at the first Thanksgiving at Plymouth Plantation is only part of the truth. When you build a lesson on only half of the information, then you are not teaching the whole truth. That is why I used the word myth. So where do you start to find out more about the holiday and our modern stories about how it began?

A good place to start is with a very important book, "The Invasion of America," by Francis Jennings. It is a very authoritative text on the settlement of New England and the evolution of Indian/White relations in the New England colonies. I also recommend looking up any good text on British history. Check out the British Civil War of 1621-1642, Oliver Cromwell, and the Puritan uprising of 1653 which ended parliamentary government in England until 1660. The history of the Puritan experience in New England really should not be separated from the history of the Puritan experience in England. You should also realize that the "Pilgrims" were a sub sect, or splinter group, of the Puritan movement. They came to America to achieve on this continent what their Puritan bretheran continued to strive for in England; and when the Puritans were forced from England, they came to New England and soon absorbed the original "Pilgrims."

As the editor, I have read all the texts listed in our bibliography, and many more, in preparing this material for you. I want you to read some of these books. So let me use my editorial license to deliberately provoke you a little. When comparing the events stirred on by the Puritans in England with accounts of Puritan/Pilgrim activities in New England in the same era, several provocative things suggest themselves:

1. The Puritans were not just simple religious conservatives persecuted by the King and the Church of England for their unorthodox beliefs. They were political revolutionaries who not only intended to overthrow the government of England, but who actually did so in 1649.

2. The Puritan "Pilgrims" who came to New England were not simply refugees who decided to "put their fate in God's hands" in the "empty wilderness" of North America, as a generation of Hollywood movies taught us. In any culture at any time, settlers on a frontier are most often outcasts and fugitives who, in some way or other, do not fit into the mainstream of their society. This is not to imply that people who settle on frontiers have no redeeming qualities such as bravery, etc., but that the images of nobility that we associate with the Puritans are at least in part the good "P.R." efforts of later writers who have romanticized them.(1) It is also very plausible that this unnaturally noble image of the Puritans is all wrapped up with the mythology of "Noble Civilization" vs. "Savagery."(2) At any rate, mainstream Englishmen considered the Pilgrims to be deliberate religious dropouts who intended to found a new nation completely independent from non-Puritan England. In 1643 the Puritan/Pilgrims declared themselves an independent confederacy, one hundred and forty-three years before the American Revolution. They believed in the imminent occurrence of Armegeddon in Europe and hoped to establish here in the new world the "Kingdom of God" foretold in the book of Revelation. They diverged from their Puritan brethren who remained in England only in that they held little real hope of ever being able to successfully overthrow the King and Parliament and, thereby, impose their "Rule of Saints" (strict Puritan orthodoxy) on the rest of the British people. So they came to America not just in one ship (the Mayflower) but in a hundred others as well, with every intention of taking the land away from its native people to build their prophesied "Holy Kingdom."(3)

3. The Pilgrims were not just innocent refugees from religious persecution. They were victims of bigotry in England, but some of them were themselves religious bigots by our modern standards. The Puritans and the Pilgrims saw themselves as the "Chosen Elect" mentioned in the book of Revelation. They strove to "purify" first themselves and then everyone else of everything they did not accept in their own interpretation of scripture. Later New England Puritans used any means, including deceptions, treachery, torture, war, and genocide to achieve that end.(4) They saw themselves as fighting a holy war against Satan, and everyone who disagreed with them was the enemy. This rigid fundamentalism was transmitted to America by the Plymouth colonists, and it sheds a very different light on the "Pilgrim" image we have of them. This is best illustrated in the written text of the Thanksgiving sermon delivered at Plymouth in 1623 by "Mather the Elder." In it, Mather the Elder gave special thanks to God for the devastating plague of smallpox which wiped out the majority of the Wampanoag Indians who had been their benefactors. He praised God for destroying "chiefly young men and children, the very seeds of increase, thus clearing the forests to make way for a better growth", i.e., the Pilgrims.(5) In as much as these Indians were the Pilgrim's benefactors, and Squanto, in particular, was the instrument of their salvation that first year, how are we to interpret this apparent callousness towards their misfortune?

4. The Wampanoag Indians were not the "friendly savages" some of us were told about when we were in the primary grades. Nor were they invited out of the goodness of the Pilgrims' hearts to share the fruits of the Pilgrims' harvest in a demonstration of Christian charity and interracial brotherhood. The Wampanoag were members of a widespread confederacy of Algonkian-speaking peoples known as the League of the Delaware. For six hundred years they had been defending themselves from my other ancestors, the Iroquois, and for the last hundred years they had also had encounters with European fishermen and explorers but especially with European slavers, who had been raiding their coastal villages.(6) They knew something of the power of the white people, and they did not fully trust them. But their religion taught that they were to give charity to the helpless and hospitality to anyone who came to them with empty hands.(7) Also, Squanto, the Indian hero of the Thanksgiving story, had a very real love for a British explorer named John Weymouth, who had become a second father to him several years before the Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. Clearly, Squanto saw these Pilgrims as Weymouth's people.(8) To the Pilgrims the Indians were heathens and, therefore, the natural instruments of the Devil. Squanto, as the only educated and baptized Christian among the Wampanoag, was seen as merely an instrument of God, set in the wilderness to provide for the survival of His chosen people, the Pilgrims. The Indians were comparatively powerful and, therefore, dangerous; and they were to be courted until the next ships arrived with more Pilgrim colonists and the balance of power shifted. The Wampanoag were actually invited to that Thanksgiving feast for the purpose of negotiating a treaty that would secure the lands of the Plymouth Plantation for the Pilgrims. It should also be noted that the INDIANS, possibly out of a sense of charity toward their hosts, ended up bringing the majority of the food for the feast.(9)

5. A generation later, after the balance of power had indeed shifted, the Indian and White children of that Thanksgiving were striving to kill each other in the genocidal conflict known as King Philip's War. At the end of that conflict most of the New England Indians were either exterminated or refugees among the French in Canada, or they were sold into slavery in the Carolinas by the Puritans. So successful was this early trade in Indian slaves that several Puritan ship owners in Boston began the practice of raiding the Ivory Coast of Africa for black slaves to sell to the proprietary colonies of the South, thus founding the American-based slave trade.(10)

Obviously there is a lot more to the story of Indian/Puritan relations in New England than in the thanksgiving stories we heard as children. Our contemporary mix of myth and history about the "First" Thanksgiving at Plymouth developed in the 1890s and early 1900s. Our country was desperately trying to pull together its many diverse peoples into a common national identity. To many writers and educators at the end of the last century and the beginning of this one, this also meant having a common national history. This was the era of the "melting pot" theory of social progress, and public education was a major tool for social unity. It was with this in mind that the federal government declared the last Thursday in November as the legal holiday of Thanksgiving in 1898.

In consequence, what started as an inspirational bit of New England folklore, soon grew into the full-fledged American Thanksgiving we now know. It emerged complete with stereotyped Indians and stereotyped Whites, incomplete history, and a mythical significance as our "First Thanksgiving." But was it really our FIRST American Thanksgiving?

Now that I have deliberately provoked you with some new information and different opinions, please take the time to read some of the texts in our bibliography. I want to encourage you to read further and form your own opinions. There really is a TRUE Thanksgiving story of Plymouth Plantation. But I strongly suggest that there always has been a Thanksgiving story of some kind or other for as long as there have been human beings. There was also a "First" Thanksgiving in America, but it was celebrated thirty thousand years ago.(11) At some time during the New Stone Age (beginning about ten thousand years ago) Thanksgiving became associated with giving thanks to God for the harvests of the land. Thanksgiving has always been a time of people coming together, so thanks has also been offered for that gift of fellowship between us all.  Every last Thursday in November we now partake in one of the OLDEST and most UNIVERSAL of human celebrations, and THERE ARE MANY THANKSGIVING STORIES TO TELL.

As for Thanksgiving week at Plymouth Plantation in 1621, the friendship was guarded and not always sincere, and the peace was very soon abused. But for three days in New England's history, peace and friendship were there.

So here is a story for your children. It is as kind and gentle a balance of historic truth and positive inspiration as its writers and this editor can make it out to be. I hope it will adequately serve its purpose both for you and your students, and I also hope this work will encourage you to look both deeper and farther, for Thanksgiving is Thanksgiving all around the world.

Chuck Larsen Tacoma Public Schools September, 1986



FOOTNOTES FOR TEACHER INTRODUCTION

(1) See Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's Indian," references to Puritans, pp. 27, 80-85, 90, 104, & 130.

(2) See Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's Indian," references to frontier concepts of savagery in index. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," the myth of savagery, pp. 6-12, 15-16, & 109-110.

(3) See Blitzer, Charles, "Age of Kings," Great Ages of Man series, references to Puritanism, pp. 141, 144 & 145-46. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," references to Puritan human motives, pp. 4-6, 43- 44 and 53.

(4) See "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," pp. 6-10. Also see Armstrong, Virginia I., "I Have Spoken," reference to Cannonchet and his village, p. 6. Also see Jennings, Francis, "The Invasion of America," Chapter 9 "Savage War," Chapter 13 "We must Burn Them," and Chapter 17 "Outrage Bloody and Barbarous."

(5) See "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," pp. 6-9. Also see Berkhofer, Jr., R.F., "The White Man's Indian," the comments of Cotton Mather, pp. 37 & 82-83.

(6) See Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," pp. 3-4. Also see Graff, Steward and Polly Ann, "Squanto, Indian Adventurer." Also see "Handbook of North American Indians," Vol. 15, the reference to Squanto on p. 82.

(7) See Benton-Banai, Edward, "The Mishomis Book," as a reference on general "Anishinabe" (the Algonkin speaking peoples) religious beliefs and practices. Also see Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," reference to religious life on p. 1.

(8) See Graff, Stewart and Polly Ann, "Squanto, Indian Adventurer." Also see Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving." Also see Bradford, Sir William, "Of Plymouth Plantation," and "Mourt's Relation."

(9) See Larsen, Charles M., "The Real Thanksgiving," the letter of Edward Winslow dated 1622, pp. 5-6.

(10) See "Handbook of North American Indians," Vol. 15, pp. 177-78. Also see "Chronicles of American Indian Protest," p. 9, the reference to the enslavement of King Philip's family. Also see Larsen, Charles, M., "The Real Thanksgiving," pp. 8-11, "Destruction of the Massachusetts Indians."

(11) Best current estimate of the first entry of people into the Americas confirmed by archaeological evidence that is datable.


The Taíno People

Taíno Indians, a subgroup of the Arawakan Indians (a group of American Indians in northeastern South America), inhabited the Greater Antilles (comprising Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola [Haiti and the Dominican Republic], and Puerto Rico) in the Caribbean Sea at the time when Christopher Columbus' arrived to the New World.

The Taíno culture impressed both the Spanish (who observed it)
 and modern sociologists. The Arawakan achievements included construction of ceremonial ball parks whose boundaries were marked by upright stone dolmens, development of a universal language, and creation of a complicated religious cosmology. There as a hierarchy of deities who inhabited the sky; Yocahu was the supreme creator. Another god, Jurakán, was perpetually angry and ruled the power of the hurricane. Other mythological figures were the gods Zemi and Maboya. The zemis, a god of both sexes, were represented by icons in the form of human and animal figures, and collars made of wood, stone, bones, and human remains. Taíno Indians believed that being in the good graces of their zemis protectedthem from disease, hurricanes, or disaster in war. They therefore served cassava (manioc) bread as well as beverages and tobacco to their zemis as propitiatory offerings. Maboyas, on the other hand, was a nocturnal deity who destroyed the crops and was feared by all the natives, to the extent that elaborate sacrifices were offered to placate him.

Myths and traditions were perpetuated through ceremonial dances (areytos), drumbeats, oral traditions, and a ceremonial ball game played between opposing teams (of 10 to 30 players per team) with a rubber ball; winning this game was thought to bring a good harvest and strong, healthy children.

The Taíno Indians lived in theocratic kingdoms and had a hierarchically arranged chiefs or caciques. The Taínos were divided in three social classes: the naborias (work class), the nitaínos or sub-chiefs and noblemen which includes the bohiques or priests and medicine men and the caciques or chiefs, each village or yucayeque had one.

At the time Juan Ponce de León took possession of the Island, there were about twenty villages or yucayeques, Cacique Agüeybana, was chief of the Taínos. He lived at Guánica, the largest Indian village in the island, on the Guayanilla River. The rank of each cacique apparently was established along democratic lines; his importance in the tribe being determined by the size of his clan, rather than its war-making strength. There was no aristocracy of lineage, nor were their titles other than those given to individuals to distinguish their services to the clan.

Their complexion were bronze-colored, average stature, dark, flowing, coarse hair, and large and slightly oblique dark eyes. Men generally went naked or wore a breech cloth, called nagua, single women walked around naked and married women an apron to over their genitals, made of cotton or palm fibers. The length of which was a sign of rank. Both sexes painted themselves on special occasions; they wore earrings, nose rings, and necklaces, which were sometimes made of gold. Taíno crafts were few; some pottery and baskets were made, and stone, marble and wood were worked skillfully.

Skilled at agriculture and hunting, then Taínos were also good sailors, fishermen, canoe makers, and navigators. Their main crops were cassava, garlic, potatoes, yautías, mamey, guava, and anón. They had no calendar or writing system, and could count only up to twenty, using their hands and feet. Their personal possessions consisted of wooden stools with four legs and carved backs, hammocks made of cotton cloth or string for sleeping, clay and wooden bowls for mixing and serving food, calabashes or gourds for drinking water and bailing out boats, and their most prized possessions, large dugout canoes, for transportation, fishing, and water sports.

Caciques lived in rectangular huts, called caneyes, located in the center of the village facing the batey. The naborias lived in round huts, called bohios. The construction of both types of building was the same: wooden frames, topped by straw, with earthen floor, and scant interior furnishing. But the buildings were strong enough to resist hurricanes. Its believed that Taíno settlements ranged from single families to groups of 3,000 people.

About 100 years before the Spanish invasion, the Taínos were challenged by an invading South American tribe - the Carib.

Fierce, warlike, sadistic, and adept at using poison-tipped arrows, they raided Taíno settlements for slaves (especially females) and bodies for the completion of their rites of cannibalism. Some ethnologists argue that the preeminence of the Taínos, shaken by the attacks of the Caribs, was already jeopardized by the time of the Spanish occupation. In fact, it was Caribs who fought the most effectively against the Europeans, their behavior probably led the Europeans to unfairly attribute warlike tendencies to all of the island's tribes. A dynamic tension between the Taínos and the Caribs certainly existed when the Christopher Columbus landed on Puerto Rico.

When the Spanish settlers first came in 1508, since there is no reliable documentation, anthropologists estimate their numbers to have been between 20,000 and 50,000, but maltreatment, disease, flight, and unsuccessful rebellion had diminished their number to 4,000 by 1515; in 1544 a bishop counted only 60, but these too were soon lost.

At their arrival the Spaniards expected the Taíno Indians to acknowledge the sovereignty of the king of Spain by payment of gold tribute, to work and supply provisions of food and to observe Christian ways. The Taínos rebelled most notably in 1511, when several caciques (Indian leaders) conspired to oust the Spaniards. They were joined in this uprising by their traditional enemies, the Caribs. Their weapons, however, were no match against Spanish horses and firearms and the revolt was soon ended brutally by the Spanish forces of Governor Juan Ponce de León.

In order to understand Puerto Rico's prehistoric era, it is important to know that the Taínos, far more than the Caribs, contributed greatly to the everyday life and language that evolved during the Spanish occupation. Taíno place names are still used for such towns as Utuado, Mayagüez, Caguas, and Humacao, among others.

Many Taíno implements and techniques were copied directly by the Europeans, including the bohío (straw hut) and the hamaca (hammock), the musical instrument known as the maracas, and the method of making cassava bread. Many Taino words persist in the Puerto Rican vocabulary of today. Names of plants, trees and fruits includes: maní, leren, ají, yuca, mamey, pajuil, pitajaya, cupey, tabonuco and ceiba. Names of fish, animals and birds includes: mucaro, guaraguao, iguana, cobo, carey, jicotea, guabina, manati, buruquena and juey. As well as other objects and instruments: güiro, bohío, batey, caney, hamaca, nasa, petate, coy, barbacoa, batea, cabuya, casabe and canoa. Other words were passed not only into Spanish, but also into English, such as huracan (hurricane) and hamaca (hammock). Also, many Taíno superstitions and legends were adopted and adapted by the Spanish and still influence the Puerto Rican imagination.






http://www.topuertorico.org/reference/taino.shtml
The Taíno People

Taíno Indians, a subgroup of the Arawakan Indians (a group of American Indians in northeastern South America), inhabited the Greater Antilles (comprising Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola [Haiti and the Dominican Republic], and Puerto Rico) in the Caribbean Sea at the time when Christopher Columbus' arrived to the New World.

The Taíno culture impressed both the Spanish (who observed it) and modern sociologists. The Arawakan achievements included construction of ceremonial ball parks whose boundaries were marked by upright stone dolmens, development of a universal language, and creation of a complicated religious cosmology. There as a hierarchy of deities who inhabited the sky; Yocahu was the supreme creator. Another god, Jurakán, was perpetually angry and ruled the power of the hurricane. Other mythological figures were the gods Zemi and Maboya. The zemis, a god of both sexes, were represented by icons in the form of human and animal figures, and collars made of wood, stone, bones, and human remains. Taíno Indians believed that being in the good graces of their zemis protectedthem from disease, hurricanes, or disaster in war. They therefore served cassava (manioc) bread as well as beverages and tobacco to their zemis as propitiatory offerings. Maboyas, on the other hand, was a nocturnal deity who destroyed the crops and was feared by all the natives, to the extent that elaborate sacrifices were offered to placate him.

Myths and traditions were perpetuated through ceremonial dances (areytos), drumbeats, oral traditions, and a ceremonial ball game played between opposing teams (of 10 to 30 players per team) with a rubber ball; winning this game was thought to bring a good harvest and strong, healthy children.

The Taíno Indians lived in theocratic kingdoms and had a hierarchically arranged chiefs or caciques. The Taínos were divided in three social classes: the naborias (work class), the nitaínos or sub-chiefs and noblemen which includes the bohiques or priests and medicine men and the caciques or chiefs, each village or yucayeque had one.

At the time Juan Ponce de León took possession of the Island, there were about twenty villages or yucayeques, Cacique Agüeybana, was chief of the Taínos. He lived at Guánica, the largest Indian village in the island, on the Guayanilla River. The rank of each cacique apparently was established along democratic lines; his importance in the tribe being determined by the size of his clan, rather than its war-making strength. There was no aristocracy of lineage, nor were their titles other than those given to individuals to distinguish their services to the clan.

Their complexion were bronze-colored, average stature, dark, flowing, coarse hair, and large and slightly oblique dark eyes. Men generally went naked or wore a breech cloth, called nagua, single women walked around naked and married women an apron to over their genitals, made of cotton or palm fibers. The length of which was a sign of rank. Both sexes painted themselves on special occasions; they wore earrings, nose rings, and necklaces, which were sometimes made of gold. Taíno crafts were few; some pottery and baskets were made, and stone, marble and wood were worked skillfully.

Skilled at agriculture and hunting, then Taínos were also good sailors, fishermen, canoe makers, and navigators. Their main crops were cassava, garlic, potatoes, yautías, mamey, guava, and anón. They had no calendar or writing system, and could count only up to twenty, using their hands and feet. Their personal possessions consisted of wooden stools with four legs and carved backs, hammocks made of cotton cloth or string for sleeping, clay and wooden bowls for mixing and serving food, calabashes or gourds for drinking water and bailing out boats, and their most prized possessions, large dugout canoes, for transportation, fishing, and water sports.

Caciques lived in rectangular huts, called caneyes, located in the center of the village facing the batey. The naborias lived in round huts, called bohios. The construction of both types of building was the same: wooden frames, topped by straw, with earthen floor, and scant interior furnishing. But the buildings were strong enough to resist hurricanes. Its believed that Taíno settlements ranged from single families to groups of 3,000 people.

About 100 years before the Spanish invasion, the Taínos were challenged by an invading South American tribe - the Carib. 

Fierce, warlike, sadistic, and adept at using poison-tipped arrows, they raided Taíno settlements for slaves (especially females) and bodies for the completion of their rites of cannibalism. Some ethnologists argue that the preeminence of the Taínos, shaken by the attacks of the Caribs, was already jeopardized by the time of the Spanish occupation. In fact, it was Caribs who fought the most effectively against the Europeans, their behavior probably led the Europeans to unfairly attribute warlike tendencies to all of the island's tribes. A dynamic tension between the Taínos and the Caribs certainly existed when the Christopher Columbus landed on Puerto Rico.

When the Spanish settlers first came in 1508, since there is no reliable documentation, anthropologists estimate their numbers to have been between 20,000 and 50,000, but maltreatment, disease, flight, and unsuccessful rebellion had diminished their number to 4,000 by 1515; in 1544 a bishop counted only  60, but these too were soon lost.

At their arrival the Spaniards expected the Taíno Indians to acknowledge the sovereignty of the king of Spain by payment of gold tribute, to work and supply provisions of food and to observe Christian ways. The Taínos rebelled most notably in 1511, when several caciques (Indian leaders) conspired to oust the Spaniards. They were joined in this uprising by their traditional enemies, the Caribs. Their weapons, however, were no match against Spanish horses and firearms and the revolt was soon ended brutally by the Spanish forces of Governor Juan Ponce de León.

In order to understand Puerto Rico's prehistoric era, it is important to know that the Taínos, far more than the Caribs, contributed greatly to the everyday life and language that evolved during the Spanish occupation. Taíno place names are still used for such towns as Utuado, Mayagüez, Caguas, and Humacao, among others.

Many Taíno implements and techniques were copied directly by the Europeans, including the bohío (straw hut) and the hamaca (hammock), the musical instrument known as the maracas, and the method of making cassava bread. Many Taino words persist in the Puerto Rican vocabulary of today. Names of plants, trees and fruits includes: maní, leren, ají, yuca, mamey, pajuil, pitajaya, cupey, tabonuco and ceiba. Names of fish, animals and birds includes: mucaro, guaraguao, iguana, cobo, carey, jicotea, guabina, manati, buruquena and juey. As well as other objects and instruments: güiro, bohío, batey, caney, hamaca, nasa, petate, coy, barbacoa, batea, cabuya, casabe and canoa. Other words were passed not only into Spanish, but also into English, such as huracan (hurricane) and hamaca (hammock). Also, many Taíno superstitions and legends were adopted and adapted by the Spanish and still influence the Puerto Rican imagination.






http://www.topuertorico.org/reference/taino.shtml

Thanksgiving…oh that wonderful holiday in which we should give thanks. Something we should do every day. Where did this national holiday come from? Well it is not what you think and definitely not what you were taught in school. Many scholars give credit to the Americans, but many cultures and countries had “national days of giving thanks” long before the United States established such a day.
With that being the case, why do we think of the Pilgrims and Plymouth, Massachusetts for the national holiday of Thanksgiving? Like most of our history it comes from miss-history and the fact that most people think of the Pilgrims as these “incredibly righteous people” that invited the “savage Indians” to their first Thanksgiving so that the “savages” would not starve. This is incorrect history and information. Here is a more accurate historical Thanksgiving account.

I think we can all relate. <3the same with 
children

A very blessed Thanksgiving, from our page to yours! )O(

Greetings Facebook...I do not Celebrate Thanksgiving...That is no Military Secret...I'm entitled to my own beliefs about Capitalistic Exploitations against a So
ciety...I think that it is extremely Disrespectful to the Original Native North American Indian...1612 marks the first official Celebration of the Harvest...This was in part due to how well the Farmers were doing since they had recently acquired African Slaves...Between 1600 and 1800, approximately 300,000 sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In doing so, they came into contact with societies living along the west African coast and in the Americas which they had never previously encountered....The reason being, because the Original Native North American Indian refused to do the work for them...They did however, try and teach the European Settlers the "Tricks-of-the-Trade" is tilling and fertilizing the soil so that it would produce sustenance... However, in return, once the European Settlers no longer needed the Natives, they started waging War on them to possess more Land...The mere Symbolism of the so called Holy-Day makes my stomach turn...However, I do find it an opportunity to reconnect and enjoy a Tradition with Family members, close friends, and Loved one's...So please, I urge everyone to be Safe, and enjoy their Festivities, but take a moment to Remember all those who lost their lives, and broke their backs so that this Holy-Day could be possible...Just sayin'...Peace!!!

~ Thanksgiving is not an American Holiday

Photo
Photo
You hear that? The kitties gave us purrmission to eat.

original photo on http://ivoryblushroses.blogspot.com/2011/11/lovely-thanksgiving.html

Hello folks, again Happy Thanksgiving for everyone who celebrate it. We will be getting ready for the big turkey dinner. Enjoy the gathering with friends and family and enjoy the feast too ! We'll see you soon !











This Black Friday weekend, help Macy's raise $250,000 for the Born This Way Foundation! Purchase a bottle of Lady Gaga Fame from tonight through Sunday at Macy's and they will donate $10 to BTWF, and tweet your picture from the Lady Gaga Fame fragrance counter at Macy's and they'll donate $5 to BTWF! See all the info in the photo, and help Born This Way Foundation reach the $250,000 goal to help build a kinder and braver world!











Hello folks, again Happy Thanksgiving for everyone who celebrate it. We will be getting ready for the big turkey dinner. Enjoy the gathering with friends and family and enjoy the feast too ! We'll see you soon !
Click on this photo to read an Aztec's account of the temple massacre.

And don't forget to LIKE our page "Last of the Free Tribes"
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Aztec Account of the Massacre of the Temple

Here it is told how the Spaniards killed... They murdered the Mexicas who were celebrating the Fiesta of Huitzilopochtli in the place they called "The Patio of the Gods".

At this time, when everyone was enjoying the fiesta, when everyone was already dancing, when everyone was already singing, when song was linked to song and the songs roared like waves, in that precise moment the Spaniards determined to kill people. They came into the patio, armed for battle.

They came to close the exits, the steps, the entrances [to the patio]: The Gate of the Eagle in the smallest palace, The Gate of the Canestalk and the Gate of the Snake of Mirrors. And when they had closed them, no one could get out anywhere.

Once they had done this, they entered the Sacred Patio to kill people. They came on foot, carrying swords and wooden and metal shields. Immediately, they surrounded those who danced, then rushed to the place where the drums were played. They attacked the man who was drumming and cut off both his arms. Then they cut off his head [with such a force] that it flew off, falling far away.

At that moment, they then attacked all the people, stabbing them, spearing them, wounding them with their swords. They struck some from behind, who fell instantly to the ground with their entrails hanging out [of their bodies]. They cut off the heads of some and smashed the heads of others into little pieces.

They struck others in the shoulders and tore their arms from their bodies. They struck some in the thighs and some in the calves. They slashed others in the abdomen and their entrails fell to the earth. There were some who even ran in vain, but their bowels spilled as they ran; they seemed to get their feet entangled with their own entrails. Eager to flee, they found nowhere to go.

Some tried to escape, but the Spaniards murdered them at the gates while they laughed. Others climbed the walls, but they could not save themselves. Others entered the communal house, where they were safe for awhile. Others lay down among the victims and pretended to be dead. But if they stood up again they [the Spaniards] would see them and kill them.

The blood of the warriors ran like water as they ran, forming pools, which widened, as the smell of blood and entrails fouled the air.

And the Spaniards walked everywhere, searching the communal houses to kill those who were hiding. They ran everywhere, they searched every place.

When [people]outside [the Sacred Patio learned of the massacre], shouting began, "Captains, Mexicas, come here quickly! Come here with all arms, spears, and shields! Our captains have been murdered! Our warriors have been slain! Oh Mexica captains, [our warriors] have been annihilated!"

Then a roar was heard, screams, people wailed, as they beat their palms against their lips. Quickly the captains assembled, as if planned in advance, and carried their spears and shields. Then the battle began. [The Mexicas] attacked them with arrows and even javelins, including small javelins used for hunting birds. They furiously hurled their javelins [at the Spaniards]. It was as if a layer of yellow canes spread over the Spaniards.





http://www.historycentral.com/explorers/AztecAcountofMassacre.html
Aztec Account of the Massacre of the Temple

Here it is told how the Spaniards killed... They murdered the Mexicas who were celebrating the Fiesta of Huitzilopo
chtli in the place they called "The Patio of the Gods".

At this time, when everyone was enjoying the fiesta, when everyone was already dancing, when everyone was already singing, when song was linked to song and the songs roared like waves, in that precise moment the Spaniards determined to kill people. They came into the patio, armed for battle.

They came to close the exits, the steps, the entrances [to the patio]: The Gate of the Eagle in the smallest palace, The Gate of the Canestalk and the Gate of the Snake of Mirrors. And when they had closed them, no one could get out anywhere.

Once they had done this, they entered the Sacred Patio to kill people. They came on foot, carrying swords and wooden and metal shields. Immediately, they surrounded those who danced, then rushed to the place where the drums were played. They attacked the man who was drumming and cut off both his arms. Then they cut off his head [with such a force] that it flew off, falling far away.

At that moment, they then attacked all the people, stabbing them, spearing them, wounding them with their swords. They struck some from behind, who fell instantly to the ground with their entrails hanging out [of their bodies]. They cut off the heads of some and smashed the heads of others into little pieces.

They struck others in the shoulders and tore their arms from their bodies. They struck some in the thighs and some in the calves. They slashed others in the abdomen and their entrails fell to the earth. There were some who even ran in vain, but their bowels spilled as they ran; they seemed to get their feet entangled with their own entrails. Eager to flee, they found nowhere to go.

Some tried to escape, but the Spaniards murdered them at the gates while they laughed. Others climbed the walls, but they could not save themselves. Others entered the communal house, where they were safe for awhile. Others lay down among the victims and pretended to be dead. But if they stood up again they [the Spaniards] would see them and kill them.

The blood of the warriors ran like water as they ran, forming pools, which widened, as the smell of blood and entrails fouled the air.

And the Spaniards walked everywhere, searching the communal houses to kill those who were hiding. They ran everywhere, they searched every place.

When [people]outside [the Sacred Patio learned of the massacre], shouting began, "Captains, Mexicas, come here quickly! Come here with all arms, spears, and shields! Our captains have been murdered! Our warriors have been slain! Oh Mexica captains, [our warriors] have been annihilated!"

Then a roar was heard, screams, people wailed, as they beat their palms against their lips. Quickly the captains assembled, as if planned in advance, and carried their spears and shields. Then the battle began. [The Mexicas] attacked them with arrows and even javelins, including small javelins used for hunting birds. They furiously hurled their javelins [at the Spaniards]. It was as if a layer of yellow canes spread over the Spaniards.





http://www.historycentral.com/explorers/AztecAcountofMassacre.html

With all the pushing and shoving to grab this year's doorbusters, they ought to call it Black and Blue Friday.


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Cyber Monday Deal Teaser

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Vampires For Charity
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Time to go and celebrate Thanksgiving with the “blood” Family…Will “see” you all back here tomorrow.

Blessings of a beautiful and Magickal day to you All! 
…..With Love and Smiles – Lady Patti
   
1 day ago


Join Circle Sanctuary in celebrating the Yuletide season:
YULETIDE ON-LINE CLASSES
Circle Craft Study with Selena Fox on internet radio
Tuesday nights, 8-9 pm central: December 4, 11, 18, 25 & January 1
listen live or listen later
https://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/events/classes-with-selena-fox.html
WINTER SOLSTICE CELEBRATIONS
Winter Solstice Pageant, Friday, December 21, 7-9 pm
First Unitarian Society, Madison, Wisconsin
Costumed characters, storytelling, music, world peace circle, more
register by November 30 for early bird discount
https://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/events/winter-solstice-pageant
Community Yule Festival, Saturday, December 22, 9 am-7 pm
Circle Sanctuary Nature Preserve, near Barneveld, Wisconsin
Yule Log ritual, gift exchange, workshops, feasting, more
https://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/events/yule-2012
OTHER YULETIDE EVENTS
Free at Circle Sanctuary Nature Preserve near Barneveld, Wisconsin
Yuletide Planning Full Moon, Wednesday, November 28, 5-9 pmhttps://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/events/full-moon-circles.html
Happy Holidays Interfaith Open House, Saturday, December 8, Noon-4 pm
https://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/events/happy-holidays-interfaith-open-house-12-8-2012
Winter Magic Full Moon, Thursday, December 27, 7-9 pmhttps://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/events/full-moon-circles.html
YULETIDE GIVING
Charity Food Drive - bring canned goods to Circle Sanctuary Winter Solstice & Yuletide Eventshttps://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/charity/charity.html
Operation Circle Care - care packages for Pagan troops serving overseas - contribute items, funds.https://www.circlesanctuary.org/index.php/military-ministries/operation-circle-care.html
Circle Sanctuary - support the work of our non-profit center
* Shop our on-line store: http://www.circlesanctuary.org/store/ and our newly renovated on-site shop, The Owl's Nest.
Yuletide specials include several 50% off items plus Free Shipping on all orders through December 31, 2012. All proceeds from The Owl's Nest go to funding many of the charitable services that Circle Sanctuary provides.
Please help us get the word out about our Yuletide resources, charities, & events - forward this email, post to blogs, share.
Thanks -- and Happy Thanksgiving!
Circle Times & News Release: Wednesday, November 21, 2012
 


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Circle Sanctuary | PO Box 9 | Barneveld, WI 53507

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On Saturday, December 1, 2012 memorial services will be held in Wisconsin to celebrate the life, works, and legacy of scholar, poet, spiritual practitioner and leader, and social activistPatricia Monaghan (1946-2012) who died from cancer on Sunday, November 11.
Michael McDermott, her husband, invites you to remember, honor and continue the work of Patricia.
Patricia carried on to the end on her work including the paperback version of the new Goddesses and Heroines; her book Brigit, Sun of Womanhood, co-edited with Michael; a new book of poetry linking her love of her Wisconsin with her Ireland; strengthening the Black Earth Institute (BEI) and the Association for the Study of Women and Mythology (ASWM).
These two organizations were important in building structures for the future. BEI was formed to have artists address the causes of inclusive spirituality, healing the earth and promoting social justice. ASWM was formed to increase the level and promotion of scholarship for goddess studies and women's mythical and legendary history.
Local food in all its facets was her other recent passion. Developing our home Brigit Rest as a center was yet another revealed. And the list can go on and on.
MEMORIAL EVENTS
On the morning of December 1, a Quaker Memorial Service will be held from 11 am - Noon at the Friends Meeting House of the Madison Monthly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), 1704 Roberts Court in Madison, located behind the Associated Bank building near the intersection of Monroe Street and Spooner Avenue. This service is open to those of many faiths and philosophies. Some parking is available next to the building and on nearby streets. For more directions: http://www.madisonfriends.org or call: (608) 256-2249. There is no need to RSVP to attend the Quaker Memorial Service.

In the afternoon, a Land-based Memorial Ceremony & Ashes Interment facilitated by Ruth Barrett will be held at 2 pm at Brigit Rest, the home of Patricia and her husband in the countryside near Black Earth. This ceremony will be held outdoors at a dedicated Ancestors' Grove where of some of Patricia's ashes will be placed under a tree recently picked out by Patricia and Michael.
Please bring a dish of already prepared food for the potluck reception table. If possible, bring a folding chair suitable for use outdoors and inside to use as seating, and if available, bring several to loan to others unable to bring their own. Please dress appropriate for the weather. Please do not bring dogs or other companion creatures. Parking is available along the driveway and nearby country roads.
Space is limited for this afternoon ceremony and must be reserved in advance. Please RSVPas soon as possible and before November 30 to reserve a place and to receive the address and directions. Include the names, phone numbers, and email addresses of all coming with you. Email: mmcdermott7862@sbcglobal.net
More information about Patricia is on-line at her website:
http://www.patricia-monaghan.com
Donations may be made in her name to the Black Earth Institute, PO Box 424, Black Earth, WI 53515.
Circle Times: Wednesday, November 21, 2012
occasional e-bulletin of Circle Sanctuary

 


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Circle Sanctuary | PO Box 9 | Barneveld, WI 53507

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Circle Sanctuary will not sell, trade, share or rent your email address.
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It is the day... but be mindful.. if you gobble to you wobble..it will take weeks to get that wobble gone... lol















Well-Loved Children Spell


Children need respectful love as much as adults do. Try adding a positive and loving energy to the environment of your home-this wil
l influence the child in positive ways. To start, take an amethyst and a rose quartz for each child. Charge the stones by saying this prayer:



Amethyst to calm and rose quartz to relate,

Send out your energies, anger negate.

Whoever holds this will relax,

And bad feelings will quickly pass.

I am calm and I am strong,

As I hear the stones' song.

So mote it be!


Give each child an amethyst and a rose quartz to put in their pockets, and suggest they grab the stones or play with them when they need love.

Sharing Maze... even now..
pies and cakes, oh my!
Photo
Truth, no matter how splendid, will now lose all meaning for you. It belongs to a world where discrimination between Subject and Predicate is possible, which implies imperfection; and you are risen above it.
YOU THUS BECOME PAN, THE ALL; NO LONGER A PART.

(A.Crowley)











Truth, no matter how splendid, will now lose all meaning for you. It belongs to a world where discrimination between Subject and Predicate is possible, which implies imperfection; and you are risen above it.
YOU THUS BECOME PAN, THE ALL; NO LONGER A PART.

(A.Crowley)

CALENDARS for sale! http://shop.josietales.com/ get our 2013 calendar. Do not wait, they will sell out!! Please Share














CALENDARS for sale! http://shop.josietales.com/ get our 2013 calendar. Do not wait, they will sell out!! Please Share

I want to say THANKs to you all for each day making my life a little brighter!  I have not met all of you .. but I feel as close to you as if you were next door!  Happy Thanksgiving to you and to my family - I love you all!

The High Priestess
A concerted effort to spoil the pleasures and affairs of others because of jealousy. Treachery. An inability to delegate in a job, leading to unnecessary stress. Lies and deceit used to upset others.

Baby Dragon emerging from it's egg!

The Holly King - by http://arwensgrace.deviantart.com/

~v v~
Photo
‎~~~~~CORNBREAD DRESSING~~~~
1 cup butter or margarine, divided
3 cups self-rising white cornmeal mix
1 cup all-purpose flour
7 large eggs
3 cups buttermilk
3 cups soft, white breadcrumbs
2 large sweet onions, diced
4 celery ribs, diced
1/4 cup finely chopped fresh sage
1/4 cup finely chopped fresh parsley
1 tablespoon seasoned pepper
7 cups chicken broth

PLACE 1/2 cup butter in a 13x9-inch pan, heat in oven at 425F for four minutes..
STIR together cornmeal and flour; whisk in three eggs and buttermilk.
POUR hot butter into batter, and stir until blended. Pour batter into pan.
BAKE at 425F for 30 minutes or until golden brown. Cool down. Crumble cornbread into a large bowl, now stir in breadcrumbs, and set aside.
MELT remaning 1/2 butter in a skillet over medium heat, add onions and celery and saute five minutes. Stir in sage, parsley and seasoned pepper, saute one minute. Remove from heat and stir into cornbread mixture.
WHISK together broth and remaining four eggs, stir into cornbread mixture. Pour evenly into one lightly greased 13-x9-x-inch pan and one lightly greased 8-inch square pan.
BAKE at 400F for 35 to 40 minutes or untill golden brown.
Southern Living,2003

Happy Thanksgiving everyone!
Dans l'amour et la lumiere,
Lady Angelique
A major energy change is coming upon all. There is a deep sense of connection to everything, to hidden realms, the elemental kingdoms, the physical kingdoms, the spiritual kingdoms. Are you prepared for this powerful shift?

















A major energy change is coming upon all. There is a deep sense of connection to everything, to hidden realms, the elemental kingdoms, the physical kingdoms, the spiritual kingdoms. Are you prepared for this powerful shift?

‎3 of Wands, Foundation. (Sacred Circle) Happy Thanksgiving! This card indicates we can celebrate the initial success of a project. Our day will be a success if we understand that we have to put in the hard work to make it happen! This is the time to continue forward. This can be an exciting period when we will be stretched and challenged and will achieve more than we ever thought possible. We should move fearlessly into new areas, and not hold back! We just need to keep in mind that whether we are with family members, loved ones, friends or even co-workers today, to not react to the heat of the moment, but step back and reconsider what we will do or say next. This card can also indicate premonitions or other intuitions about what is to come. So do some meditating and practice listening to your inner voice. Meditate on what you have to be thankful for. Dig deep and find something, you'll feel better....and you'll be stronger.
3 of Wands, Foundation. (Sacred Circle) Happy Thanksgiving! This card indicates we can celebrate the initial success of a project. Our day will be a success if we understand that we have to put in the hard work to make it happen! This is the time to continue forward. This can be an exciting period when we will be stretched and challenged and will achieve more than we ever thought possible. We should move fearlessly into new areas, and not hold back! We just need to keep in mind that whether we are with family members, loved ones, friends or even co-workers today, to not react to the heat of the moment, but step back and reconsider what we will do or say next. This card can also indicate premonitions or other intuitions about what is to come. So do some meditating and practice listening to your inner voice. Meditate on what you have to be thankful for. Dig deep and find something, you'll feel better....and you'll be stronger.

Good Morning LGBT News Fans! Have a lovely day!

































Tonight's blessing candle
I wanted to add a thankful candle to tonight's sacred circle
May we each take a few moments to quiet our hearts
and quiet our minds, step away from life's troubles and the hustle and bustle of our busy lives
to give thanks to the God & Goddess
for the blessings we all receive each and everyday
may the holiday bring us each a little closer
open our hearts, to love and gratitude
and may we all be blessed
Tonight's blessing candle
I wanted to add a thankful candle to tonight's sacred circle
May we each take a few moments to quiet our hearts
and quiet our minds, step away from life's troubles and the hustle and bustle of our busy lives
to give thanks to the God & Goddess
for the blessings we all receive each and everyday
may the holiday bring us each a little closer
open our hearts, to love and gratitude
and may we all be blessed
















‎"I’m thankful that the Christmas lights we left up last year are almost back in season.” - Stewie Griffin
"I’m thankful that the Christmas lights we left up last year are almost back in season.” - Stewie Griffin

HAPPY THANKSGIVING YOU INGRATES!!!!! ;)

















HAPPY THANKSGIVING YOU INGRATES!!!!! ;)

Relax, pop this on in the back ground and feel your vibrations and the vibrations of where ever you are raise! Love and light x Les

♥ Ok PUPPY, I'm sitting down, what's up? :) ♥

If you have a dog you HAVE to get Bully Sticks! Only $0.99 and you can order up to 5! (Regularly $3.99 each!) - Click ♥ http://bit.ly/UWx6AN ♥ to order!
Spend the holidays with The Twilight Saga!

Get your tix to Breaking Dawn - Part 2 now: http://bit.ly/BD2-tix
Spend the holidays with @[8526405673:274:The Twilight Saga]!

Get your tix to @[123422907786627:128:Breaking Dawn - Part 2] now: http://bit.ly/BD2-tix














Magickal Potpourri of Thanksgiving

To add a little magickal energy to your Thanksgiving this is a great sweet smelling mix. It is also wonderful for those unable to share their magickal beliefs with others. It can be given as a gift when you go to someone’s home for Thanksgiving dinner, placed around your home for blessings and shared with those you love. Once the holiday is over, simple burn it or bury it with blessing of Thanksgiving.

Ingredients; ¼ cup all dried herbs.

Dried marigold heads
Sunflower petals
Small mixed nuts; acorns, hazelnuts, etc.
Autumn colored leaves. (not to large)
Dried Indian corn. (off cob)
Small pine cones
Broken cinnamon sticks

Essential oils;

Cinnamon
Pumpkin
Allspice

Mix all your dried herbs together in a large bowl.
Add 9 drops of each of the essential oils and mix well throughout. While you are mixing it say;

Goddess Mother of truth and light,
Bring your blessing upon this night.
In thankfulness we bid the see,
Blessing of harvest, so mote it be.

Place in bowl in any area of your home, everyone who enjoys its aroma will receive the blessings of Autumn. Save in air tight container.

By Lady Abigail
High Priestess Ravensgrove Coven
Copyright 11232004
Magickal Potpourri of Thanksgiving

To add a little magickal energy to your Thanksgiving this is a great sweet smelling mix. It is also wonderful for those unable to share their magickal beliefs with others. It can be given as a gift when you go to someone’s home for Thanksgiving dinner, placed around your home for blessings and shared with those you love. Once the holiday is over, simple burn it or bury it with blessing of Thanksgiving. 

Ingredients; ¼ cup all dried herbs.

Dried marigold heads
Sunflower petals
Small mixed nuts; acorns, hazelnuts, etc.
Autumn colored leaves. (not to large)
Dried Indian corn. (off cob)
Small pine cones
Broken cinnamon sticks

Essential oils;

Cinnamon 
Pumpkin 
Allspice

Mix all your dried herbs together in a large bowl. 
Add 9 drops of each of the essential oils and mix well throughout. While you are mixing it say;

Goddess Mother of truth and light,
Bring your blessing upon this night.
In thankfulness we bid the see,
Blessing of harvest, so mote it be.

Place in bowl in any area of your home, everyone who enjoys its aroma will receive the blessings of Autumn. Save in air tight container. 

By Lady Abigail
High Priestess Ravensgrove Coven
Copyright 11232004We give thanks for the ceasefire. 

Thanks to @[307551552600363:274:Knowledge of Today].
FOOD FOR THOUGHT:
TODAY IS THANKSGIVING:
ENJOY THE FOOD , THE FAMILY, AND BE THANKFUL FOR THE BOUNTY THE GODDESS HAS GIVEN US.
HAVE A MAGICKAL JOURNEY:
DAN THE OLDE ONE
KEEPER OF MYTHS, LEGENDS AND THE OLDE WAYS

Time for me to say good night. I've got like a gazillion things to do tomorrow. Making gingerbread is first, and it gets busier after that. I wish you all a happy Thanksgiving, since I'm not sure how much I'll be able to get on the computer. Blessed be, to all of you! )O(
Eclipse over Uluru (via: www.stevenpearcephoto.com)
Eclipse over Uluru (via: www.stevenpearcephoto.com)

<3 
http://kattything.deviantart.com/
Sitting Bull at Rock Creek

















Sitting Bull at Rock Creek



Love and Blessings to all <3 <3 <3

Oriental Fantasy
Happy turkeyday
D, ,

This graphic is part of my “Native American 2013” Calendar set – feel free to download
Thanksgiving Blessings to all those in the United States today - Genni )O(

#Marcus
♥¯♥♥¯¯¯¯♥' WHITESWAN LORENA♥¯♥♥¯
Mermaid's Kissby ~JennLaa
http://jennlaa.deviantart.com/
Truth ...
Lady Abigail



Photo

I am so very thankful for the love, kindness & support that I receive from my family, friends & fans. I pray that everyone will be happy, abundant, safe & healthy - now & always. ^i^

Good morning everyone! Are you enjoying your Turkey fest holiday?

Daily Devotions of the Goddess
Sing to the tune of; Over the River and Through the Wood.

Over the river, and through the wood,
We dance in circles round!
Well have such fun, when the day is done,
As moonlight songs abound.

So with a thanksgiving blessed be,
We send peace to all we see.
So sing and dance within the light,
And set your spirit free.

Repeat first verse.

By Lady Abigail
Copyright 11232010
Daily Devotions of the Goddess 
Sing to the tune of; Over the River and Through the Wood.

Over the river, and through the wood,
We dance in circles round!
Well have such fun, when the day is done,
As moonlight songs abound.

So with a thanksgiving blessed be,
We send peace to all we see.
So sing and dance within the light,
And set your spirit free.

Repeat first verse.

By Lady Abigail
Copyright 11232010
Like ·  ·  · 13 hours ag


THE YULE LOG
-----------------

The Yule log is a central part of Yule festivities. The log is kindled from the remains of the previous year's Yule fire [This piece was kept in the home throughout the year for protection]The Yule log symbolizes the light returning to conquer the darkness.

According to tradition, the log must either have been harvested from the householder's land, or given as a gift, it must never have been bought. Once dragged into the house and placed in the fireplace it was decorated in seasonal greenery, doused with cider or ale, and dusted with flour before set ablaze. The log would burn throughout the night, then smolder for 12 days after before being ceremonially put out.

A different type of Yule log, and perhaps one more suitable for modern practitioners would be the type that is used as a base to hold three candles. Find a smaller branch of oak or pine, and flatten one side so it sets upright. Drill three holes in the top side to hold red, green, and white (season), green, gold, and black (the Sun God), or white, red, and black (the Great Goddess). Continue to decorate with greenery, red and gold bows, rosebuds, cloves, and dust with flour.

Once, the Yule log had been the center of the celebration.

There are many traditional ways to collect your log; Some collect a log at Beltane and dry out till Yule. Others use the thickest part of the Yule tree trunk to save till it becomes next years Yule log. Still others will make a ritual of trekking into the woods at yuletide and dragging their Yule log home.

YULE LOG MAGICK

The yule log is a remnant of the bonfires that the European pagans would set ablaze at the time of Winter Solstice. These bonfires symbolized the return of the Sun.

An oak log, plus a fireplace or bonfire area is needed for this form of celebration. The oak log should be very dry so that it will blaze well. On the night of Yule, carve a symbol of your hopes for the coming year into the log. Burn the log to release it's power. It can be decorated with burnable red ribbons of natural fiber and dried holly leaves. In the fireplace or bonfire area, dried kindling should be set to facilitate the burning of the log.The Yule log can be made of any wood (Oak is traditional). Each releases its own kind of magick.

Ash -- brings protection, prosperity, and health

Aspen -- invokes understanding of the grand design

Birch -- signifies new beginnings

Holly -- inspires visions and reveals past lives

Oak -- brings healing, strength, and wisdom

Pine -- signifies prosperity and growth

Willow -- invokes the Goddess to achieve desires

The burning of the Yule Log can easily become a family tradition. Begin by having parent(s) or some other family member describe the tradition of the Yule Log. The tale of the Oak King and Holly King from Celtic mythology can be shared as a story, or can be summarized with a statement that the Oak represents the waxing solar year, Winter Solstice to Summer Solstice, and the Holly represents the waning solar year, Summer Solstice to Winter Solstice.

Lights are extinguished as much as possible. The family is quiet together in the darkness. Family members quietly contemplate the change in the solar year. Each in her/his own way contemplates the past calendar year, the challenges as well as the good times.

Then the Yule Log fire is lit. As it begins to burn, each family member throws in one or more dried holly sprigs and says farewell to the old calendar year. Farewells can take the form of thanksgiving and appreciation and/or a banishment of old habits or personal pains.

Once the Yule Log itself starts blazing, then the facilitator invites family members to contemplate the year ahead and the power of possibilities. Each member then throws in an oak twig or acorn into the fire to represent the year ahead, and calls out a resolution and/or a hope.

Families using a Yule Log with candles each family member can write a bad habit and/or a wish for the upcoming year on a slip of paper and burn it in the candle flame.

When this process is done, the family sings a song together. The traditional carol, "Deck the Halls", is good because it mentions the Solstice, the change in the solar year, and the Yule Log.

Let the Yule Log burn down to a few chunks of charred wood and ashes (or candles burn down). Following an ancient tradition, save remnants of the fire and use them to start the Yule Log fire the following year.
THE YULE LOG
-----------------

The Yule log is a central part of Yule festivities. The log is kindled from the remains of the previous year's Yule fire [This piece was kept in the home throughout the year for protection]The Yule log symbolizes the light returning to conquer the darkness. 

According to tradition, the log must either have been harvested from the householder's land, or given as a gift, it must never have been bought. Once dragged into the house and placed in the fireplace it was decorated in seasonal greenery, doused with cider or ale, and dusted with flour before set ablaze. The log would burn throughout the night, then smolder for 12 days after before being ceremonially put out.

A different type of Yule log, and perhaps one more suitable for modern practitioners would be the type that is used as a base to hold three candles. Find a smaller branch of oak or pine, and flatten one side so it sets upright. Drill three holes in the top side to hold red, green, and white (season), green, gold, and black (the Sun God), or white, red, and black (the Great Goddess). Continue to decorate with greenery, red and gold bows, rosebuds, cloves, and dust with flour.

Once, the Yule log had been the center of the celebration.

There are many traditional ways to collect your log; Some collect a log at Beltane and dry out till Yule. Others use the thickest part of the Yule tree trunk to save till it becomes next years Yule log. Still others will make a ritual of trekking into the woods at yuletide and dragging their Yule log home.

YULE LOG MAGICK

The yule log is a remnant of the bonfires that the European pagans would set ablaze at the time of Winter Solstice. These bonfires symbolized the return of the Sun.

An oak log, plus a fireplace or bonfire area is needed for this form of celebration. The oak log should be very dry so that it will blaze well. On the night of Yule, carve a symbol of your hopes for the coming year into the log. Burn the log to release it's power. It can be decorated with burnable red ribbons of natural fiber and dried holly leaves. In the fireplace or bonfire area, dried kindling should be set to facilitate the burning of the log.The Yule log can be made of any wood (Oak is traditional). Each releases its own kind of magick.

Ash -- brings protection, prosperity, and health

Aspen -- invokes understanding of the grand design

Birch -- signifies new beginnings

Holly -- inspires visions and reveals past lives

Oak -- brings healing, strength, and wisdom

Pine -- signifies prosperity and growth

Willow -- invokes the Goddess to achieve desires

The burning of the Yule Log can easily become a family tradition. Begin by having parent(s) or some other family member describe the tradition of the Yule Log. The tale of the Oak King and Holly King from Celtic mythology can be shared as a story, or can be summarized with a statement that the Oak represents the waxing solar year, Winter Solstice to Summer Solstice, and the Holly represents the waning solar year, Summer Solstice to Winter Solstice.

Lights are extinguished as much as possible. The family is quiet together in the darkness. Family members quietly contemplate the change in the solar year. Each in her/his own way contemplates the past calendar year, the challenges as well as the good times.

Then the Yule Log fire is lit. As it begins to burn, each family member throws in one or more dried holly sprigs and says farewell to the old calendar year. Farewells can take the form of thanksgiving and appreciation and/or a banishment of old habits or personal pains.

Once the Yule Log itself starts blazing, then the facilitator invites family members to contemplate the year ahead and the power of possibilities. Each member then throws in an oak twig or acorn into the fire to represent the year ahead, and calls out a resolution and/or a hope.

Families using a Yule Log with candles each family member can write a bad habit and/or a wish for the upcoming year on a slip of paper and burn it in the candle flame.

When this process is done, the family sings a song together. The traditional carol, "Deck the Halls", is good because it mentions the Solstice, the change in the solar year, and the Yule Log.

Let the Yule Log burn down to a few chunks of charred wood and ashes (or candles burn down). Following an ancient tradition, save remnants of the fire and use them to start the Yule Log fire the following year.
Photo


Daily Devotions of the Goddess

Let us be  grateful for every morning filled with new light,
For each day that for it allows us to discover in the magick of life.
 And the nights as the Goddess shines Her beauty upon us and fills our world peace. 
My your Day of Thanksgiving be filled with joy.

By Lady Abigail 
Copyright 11232010











Daily Devotions of the Goddess

Let us be grateful for every morning filled with new light,
For each day that for it allows us to discover in the magick of lif
e.
And the nights as the Goddess shines Her beauty upon us and fills our world peace.
My your Day of Thanksgiving be filled with joy.

By Lady Abigail
Copyright 11232010

Life is Love..

❤
.⋱ ⋮ ⋰.,;***;,.⋱ ⋮ ⋰
⋯¤♥¤⋯(^_^)⋯¤♥¤⋯ 
⋰ ⋮ ⋱..._/l\_...⋰ ⋮ ⋱

Power to the ☮Peaceful☮

Eirene, or Irene one of the Horae, was the personification of peace, and was depicted in art as a beautiful young woman carrying a cornucopia, sceptre and a torch or rhyton. She is said sometimes to be the daughter of Zeus and Themis.

















Eirene, or Irene one of the Horae, was the personification of peace, and was depicted in art as a beautiful young woman carrying a cornucopia, sceptre and a torch or rhyton. She is said sometimes to be the daughter of Zeus and Themis.

Spread the word. Fight this evil.

(¯`v´¯)
 `*.¸.*.♥.✿ ♥ƸӜƷ˜”*°•.•.¸ღ¸☆´ “Perfect Timing”
I found a little sign today just laying on the ground, the feather that you sent to me when you knew I’d be around.
I know you’re always helping, sending guidance from above and giving reassurance that I’m surrounded with your love.
So, I really want to thank you for confirming that you’re there, at just the time I needed that little extra bit of care! ~©~ Mary Jac
You'll find 4 pages of inspirational blessings, poems & quotes with images starting here: ☆ http://www.myangelcardreadings.com/mj2 ☆
 ★ http://www.facebook.com/maryjacangelcardreadings ★




Happy Thanksgiving Day, People of the Page. And Happy Thanksgiving Day to all our troops and their families wherever they may be. Thanks to Granny Goodwitch for this message:
<3

Evidence for Neanderthal in America

The long-held theory of how humans first populated the Americas may have been well and truly broken.

Archaeologists have unearthed thousands of stone tools that predate the technology widely assumed to have been carried by the first settlers.

The discoveries in Texas are seen as compelling evidence that the so-called Clovis culture does not represent America’s original immigrants.

Details of the 15,500-year-old finds are reported in Science magazine.

A number of digs across the Americas in recent decades had already hinted that the “Clovis first” model was in serious trouble.

But the huge collection of well-dated tools excavated from a creek bed 60km (40 miles) northwest of Austin mean the theory is now dead, argue the Science authors.

“This is almost like a baseball bat to the side of the head of the archaeological community to wake up and say, ‘hey, there are pre-Clovis people here, that we have to stop quibbling and we need to develop a new model for peopling of the Americas’,” Michael Waters, a Texas A&M University anthropologist, told reporters.

For 80 years, it has been argued that the Clovis culture was the first to sweep into the New World. …

Dr Waters and colleagues say this position is now undeniable in the light of the new artefacts to emerge from the Debra L Friedkin excavation.

These objects comprise 15,528 items in total – a variety of chert blades, bladelets, chisels, and abundant flakes produced when making or repairing stone tools.

The collection was found directly below sediment containing classic Clovis implements. The dating – which relied on a technique known as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) that can tell how long minerals have been buried – is robust, says the team. And, they add, the observed sequence is also reliable; the sediments have not been mixed up after the tools were dropped.

“The sediments were very rigid in the fact that they were clay, which worked to our advantage,” explained Lee Nordt from Baylor University. “If you go to many other sites, they are loamy or sandy in texture, and they are mixed very rapidly by burrowing from animals or maybe from plant roots, etc.” …


EUROPEANS colonised America up to 30,000 years ago, perhaps by crossing the Atlantic, according to a genetic analysis of native Americans that sheds light on their origins. By studying the DNA in “power packs” of cells called mitochondria, scientists can compare populations to reveal evidence of ancient migrations, the American Association for the Advancement of Science was told. Such work reveals four major lineages in native Americans which can be traced to Siberia and north-east Asia, notably in Baikal and Altai-Sayan.

However, a fifth – more minor – founding lineage, called haplogroup X, can be traced to Europe, and is found in North American populations, said Dr Theodore Schurr of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio, Texas. Dr Schurr said: “This is one of the intriguing findings that we have come across recently. These data imply that haplogroup X was present in the New World long before Europeans first arrived in the New World, before Columbus or the Vikings or anybody else.” …


When did human beings first arrive in the Americas? The “accepted” date keeps getting pushed back.

The Clovis Culture were mammoth hunters whose archaeological sites have been dated to ~13,000 years ago. The Clovis people are thought to have walked here over the Bering Land Bridge, Northern Alaska, and through a Canadian ice-free corridor.

But coastal archaeological sites may be much older, suggesting that people in boats arrived in the Americas as much as 30,000 years ago. Controversy on the earliest date is decades old and one of the favorites questions debated by modern archaeologists …

It is fun to imagine humanity 30,000 years ago.  The big news of the time was likely the clash between the two noticeably different humans: Homo sapiens and Neanderthal.  What happened to the Neanderthal men? Our ancestors killed them and ate them.


The phenomenon known today as genocide that began 30,000 years ago when homo sapiens came across a unique independent type of humans and destroyed them to seize more space on the planet. …

Neanderthal men were real hunters and hunted in groups. Neanderthal men and homo sapiens began to hunt each other and eat up bodies of defeated enemies about 40 thousand of years ago. That was a period when first homo sapiens appeared in Europe, the land of Neanderthal men. The two peoples coexisted on the territory for 10,000 years. About 30,000 years ago Neanderthal men lived in the south of Spain, in Gibraltar and the Pyrenees, and then vanished without leaving a trace.

Analysis of 11 different human gene trees suggests that our species arose in Africa, and that there were at least two major population expansions out of Africa; one over 600,000 and another 95,000 years ago  (Cann, 2002). Recent fossil finds in norther Spain extend this earliest migration to 1.2 million years ago. An  earlier expansion of Homo erectus from Africa occurred 1.7 million years ago (Templeton, 2002).  The first corresponds with the  movement of  Homo neanderthalensis out of Africa and an increase in hominid (see hominid books) fossil cranial capacity. Archaeologists have found much physical evidence to confirm this date, such as the 0.73 Mya old fossils with stone tools and bison and other animal bones of a generalised Homo species from Isernia in west central Italy.  The other date matches the movement of modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens out of Africa and the appearance of modern traits in fossil skulls. Fossil skull traits such as high, rounded skulls, small brow ridges,  a vertical forehead and a pronounced chin first appear in Africa about 130,000 years ago. They then appear outside of Africa over 90,000 years ago (Templeton, 2002).  Phylogenetic analysis of Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA leads to a  date for the common ancestor of the neanderthal and modern humans at around 465,000 to 600,000 years ago (four times the estimate for the common ancestor of all modern humans) (Disotell, 1999). The common ancestor of the mtDNAs of all living humans lived about 170,000 years ago (Hofreiter et al, 2001).   All hominid remains of the last 100,000 years belong to one of these two species (Roe in Waechter, 1990). Ancient remains from a Spanish cave site (La Sima de los Huesos), are a transitional form between Homo erectus and Neanderthals.


Our only written records are of a time4,711 years ago, and they mention a wild man who battles a king, becomes his friend, and eventually dies.

Gilgamesh was an historical king of Uruk in Babylonia, on the River Euphrates in modern Iraq; he lived about 2700 B.C. … Many stories and myths were written about Gilgamesh, some of which were written down about 2000 B.C. in the Sumerian language on clay tablets which still survive; the Sumerian language, as far as we know, bears no relation to any other human language we know about. These Sumerian Gilgamesh stories were integrated into a longer poem, versions of which survive not only in Akkadian (the Semitic language, related to Hebrew, spoken by the Babylonians) but also on tablets written in Hurrian and Hittite (an Indo-European language, a family of languages which includes Greek and English, spoken in Asia Minor).

I wonder if the wild man, Enkindu, in that story is actually a metaphorical representative of a whole species (or subspecies), Neanderthal man.  It seems unlikely since Neanderthal had been gone 25,000 years, but perhaps not 100% gone.

Gibraltar, the last resort of Neanderthal manScientists have found the last refuge of the Neanderthals, revealing how they eked out an existence for thousands of years longer than had been thought, according to research published today. 
The evidence from a cave in Gibraltar that they were much more tenacious than previously believed adds some support for a controversial claim that this earlier kind of human may have interbred with our ancestors. …

a study published today in the journal Nature by Prof Clive Finlayson of The Gibraltar Museum, Gibraltar, …produce[s] dating results that suggest that a lucky group survived extinction in this part of southern Iberia until at least 28,000 years ago, perhaps even 24,000 years ago. …

The new findings come from Gorham’s Cave, in which stone tools were first discovered more than 50 years ago. Dating of more recently uncovered artefacts, including a series of hearth places all created at the same location within the cave, leaving charcoal remains, now show just how long-lasting the Neanderthal settlement was.

People living there would have had access to diverse plants and animals, sandy plains, woodlands, wetlands and coastline — a rich environment that probably helped the Neanderthals to persist for so long. …

A typical Neanderthal was shorter than modern man with a heavy trunk and a robust and powerful build — perfect for his Ice Age environment.

And he had a big brain too: it is thought possible that he used body decoration, hunted in packs and — by one analysis — had a shorter and wider vocal tract than a modern male human’s that could manage the complex range of sounds needed for speech, albeit at higher pitches. …


Cro-Magnon are the first early Homo sapiens sapiens.

The term “Cro-Magnon” soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. … Cro-Magnon were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporary Neanderthals. … Like Neanderthals, the Cro-Magnon were primarily big-game hunters, killing mammoth, cave bears, horses and reindeer. They would have been nomadic or semi-nomadic, following the annual migration of their prey.


To make it to America, Neanderthal could have used boats, but there is no evidence that they had this technology. It seems to me their lack of boats is another reason their “last stand” was in Gibraltar. They had reached the end of the earth… as they saw it.  Despite their large brains, they seem to have lacked the ability to plan ahead:

While Neanderthals mastered complex tasks such as the making of fire, shelters with post holes, and stone tools, there were many Cro-Magnon tools and behaviors Neanderthals seem to have never developed: organized fishing; using fish hooks and fish nets; headgear or hats, shoes, and sewn clothing; needle-and-thread; and long-distance trade.

… Neanderthals also appear to have never used boats or rafts, as evidenced by the lack of Neanderthal fossils from North Africa, yet in stark contrast Homo erectus, their more primitive ancestor, appears to have used rafts or some other sort of boat on occasion. …

Since Neanderthals evidently never used watercraft, but prior and/or arguably more primitive editions of humanity did, there is argument Neanderthals represent a highly specialized side branch of the human tree …

Additionally, Neanderthals evidently had little long-term planning when securing food. French caves show almost no salmon bones during Neanderthal occupancy but large numbers during Cro-Magnon occupancy. In contrast, Cro-Magnons planned for salmon runs months ahead of time, getting enough people together at just the right time and place to catch a lot of fish. Neanderthals appear to have had little to no social organization beyond the immediate family unit.


Another way to get to America, was across the Bering land bridge.

The Bering land bridge is significant for several reasons, not least because it is believed to have enabled human migration to the Americas from Asia about 20,000 years ago.


The Neanderthal as early as 24,000 years ago were in Gibraltar, could a group have also migrated east? 

DNA extracted from skeletal remains has shown that Neanderthals roamed some 2000 kilometres further east than previously thought.

Researchers say the genetic sequence of an adolescent Neanderthal found in southern Siberia closely matches that of Neanderthals found in western Europe, suggesting that this close relative of modern humans migrated very long distances.

Svante Pääbo at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and colleagues examined skeletal remains found in the Okladnikov cave in the Altai Mountains and dated as between 30,000 and 38,000 years old . Until now, archaeologists have been unable to determine whether the remains belonged to Neanderthals or another species of extinct hominid because the bones are too fragmented.

Pääbo and his colleagues took 200 milligram samples of bone from the adolescent. After dissolving the mineral component of the bone, the team succeeded in extracting DNA from mitochondria – parts of the cell that produce energy.

After sequencing a short fragment of this DNA, the team compared it with that of several Neanderthals found in Europe. They discovered that it matched DNA recovered from remains found in Belgium almost perfectly. The match was “quite a bit of a surprise”, according to Pääbo, since the new evidence extends the territory of this hominid some 2000 kilometres further east.

“It means that Neanderthals were a bit more adaptable than some people give them credit for,” says Jeffrey McKee at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, US.



Future discoveries may find that Neanderthal did cross by land into America, perhaps even before our own Ancestors did. This would make them “The Ancient Ones” of the Miwok legends. Is “bigfoot” a Neanderthal descendant? We are probably all part Neanderthal descendants.

A genetic analysis of nearly 2,000 people from around the world indicates that such extinct species interbred with the ancestors of modern humans twice, leaving their genes within the DNA of people today.

The discovery, presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on 17 April, adds important new details to the evolutionary history of the human species. And it may help explain the fate of the Neanderthals, who vanished from the fossil record about 30,000 years ago. “It means Neanderthals didn’t completely disappear,” says Jeffrey Long, a genetic anthropologist at the University of New Mexico, whose group conducted the analysis. There is a little bit of Neanderthal leftover in almost all humans, he says. …

Using projected rates of genetic mutation and data from the fossil record, the researchers suggest that the interbreeding happened about 60,000 years ago in the eastern Mediterranean and, more recently, about 45,000 years ago in eastern Asia. …






http://xenophilius.wordpress.com/2011/03/25/evidence-for-neanderthal-in-america/


Evidence for Neanderthal in America

The long-held theory of how humans first populated the Americas may have been well and truly broken.

Archaeologists have unearthed thousands of stone tools that predate the technology widely assumed to have been carried by the first settlers.

The discoveries in Texas are seen as compelling evidence that the so-called Clovis culture does not represent America’s original immigrants.

Details of the 15,500-year-old finds are reported in Science magazine.

A number of digs across the Americas in recent decades had already hinted that the “Clovis first” model was in serious trouble.

But the huge collection of well-dated tools excavated from a creek bed 60km (40 miles) northwest of Austin mean the theory is now dead, argue the Science authors.

“This is almost like a baseball bat to the side of the head of the archaeological community to wake up and say, ‘hey, there are pre-Clovis people here, that we have to stop quibbling and we need to develop a new model for peopling of the Americas’,” Michael Waters, a Texas A&M University anthropologist, told reporters.

For 80 years, it has been argued that the Clovis culture was the first to sweep into the New World. …

Dr Waters and colleagues say this position is now undeniable in the light of the new artefacts to emerge from the Debra L Friedkin excavation.

These objects comprise 15,528 items in total – a variety of chert blades, bladelets, chisels, and abundant flakes produced when making or repairing stone tools.

The collection was found directly below sediment containing classic Clovis implements. The dating – which relied on a technique known as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) that can tell how long minerals have been buried – is robust, says the team. And, they add, the observed sequence is also reliable; the sediments have not been mixed up after the tools were dropped.

“The sediments were very rigid in the fact that they were clay, which worked to our advantage,” explained Lee Nordt from Baylor University. “If you go to many other sites, they are loamy or sandy in texture, and they are mixed very rapidly by burrowing from animals or maybe from plant roots, etc.” …


EUROPEANS colonised America up to 30,000 years ago, perhaps by crossing the Atlantic, according to a genetic analysis of native Americans that sheds light on their origins. By studying the DNA in “power packs” of cells called mitochondria, scientists can compare populations to reveal evidence of ancient migrations, the American Association for the Advancement of Science was told. Such work reveals four major lineages in native Americans which can be traced to Siberia and north-east Asia, notably in Baikal and Altai-Sayan.

However, a fifth – more minor – founding lineage, called haplogroup X, can be traced to Europe, and is found in North American populations, said Dr Theodore Schurr of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio, Texas. Dr Schurr said: “This is one of the intriguing findings that we have come across recently. These data imply that haplogroup X was present in the New World long before Europeans first arrived in the New World, before Columbus or the Vikings or anybody else.” …


When did human beings first arrive in the Americas? The “accepted” date keeps getting pushed back.

The Clovis Culture were mammoth hunters whose archaeological sites have been dated to ~13,000 years ago. The Clovis people are thought to have walked here over the Bering Land Bridge, Northern Alaska, and through a Canadian ice-free corridor.

But coastal archaeological sites may be much older, suggesting that people in boats arrived in the Americas as much as 30,000 years ago. Controversy on the earliest date is decades old and one of the favorites questions debated by modern archaeologists …

It is fun to imagine humanity 30,000 years ago. The big news of the time was likely the clash between the two noticeably different humans: Homo sapiens and Neanderthal. What happened to the Neanderthal men? Our ancestors killed them and ate them.


The phenomenon known today as genocide that began 30,000 years ago when homo sapiens came across a unique independent type of humans and destroyed them to seize more space on the planet. …

Neanderthal men were real hunters and hunted in groups. Neanderthal men and homo sapiens began to hunt each other and eat up bodies of defeated enemies about 40 thousand of years ago. That was a period when first homo sapiens appeared in Europe, the land of Neanderthal men. The two peoples coexisted on the territory for 10,000 years. About 30,000 years ago Neanderthal men lived in the south of Spain, in Gibraltar and the Pyrenees, and then vanished without leaving a trace.

Analysis of 11 different human gene trees suggests that our species arose in Africa, and that there were at least two major population expansions out of Africa; one over 600,000 and another 95,000 years ago (Cann, 2002). Recent fossil finds in norther Spain extend this earliest migration to 1.2 million years ago. An earlier expansion of Homo erectus from Africa occurred 1.7 million years ago (Templeton, 2002). The first corresponds with the movement of Homo neanderthalensis out of Africa and an increase in hominid (see hominid books) fossil cranial capacity. Archaeologists have found much physical evidence to confirm this date, such as the 0.73 Mya old fossils with stone tools and bison and other animal bones of a generalised Homo species from Isernia in west central Italy. The other date matches the movement of modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens out of Africa and the appearance of modern traits in fossil skulls. Fossil skull traits such as high, rounded skulls, small brow ridges, a vertical forehead and a pronounced chin first appear in Africa about 130,000 years ago. They then appear outside of Africa over 90,000 years ago (Templeton, 2002). Phylogenetic analysis of Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA leads to a date for the common ancestor of the neanderthal and modern humans at around 465,000 to 600,000 years ago (four times the estimate for the common ancestor of all modern humans) (Disotell, 1999). The common ancestor of the mtDNAs of all living humans lived about 170,000 years ago (Hofreiter et al, 2001). All hominid remains of the last 100,000 years belong to one of these two species (Roe in Waechter, 1990). Ancient remains from a Spanish cave site (La Sima de los Huesos), are a transitional form between Homo erectus and Neanderthals.


Our only written records are of a time4,711 years ago, and they mention a wild man who battles a king, becomes his friend, and eventually dies.

Gilgamesh was an historical king of Uruk in Babylonia, on the River Euphrates in modern Iraq; he lived about 2700 B.C. … Many stories and myths were written about Gilgamesh, some of which were written down about 2000 B.C. in the Sumerian language on clay tablets which still survive; the Sumerian language, as far as we know, bears no relation to any other human language we know about. These Sumerian Gilgamesh stories were integrated into a longer poem, versions of which survive not only in Akkadian (the Semitic language, related to Hebrew, spoken by the Babylonians) but also on tablets written in Hurrian and Hittite (an Indo-European language, a family of languages which includes Greek and English, spoken in Asia Minor).

I wonder if the wild man, Enkindu, in that story is actually a metaphorical representative of a whole species (or subspecies), Neanderthal man. It seems unlikely since Neanderthal had been gone 25,000 years, but perhaps not 100% gone.

Gibraltar, the last resort of Neanderthal manScientists have found the last refuge of the Neanderthals, revealing how they eked out an existence for thousands of years longer than had been thought, according to research published today.
The evidence from a cave in Gibraltar that they were much more tenacious than previously believed adds some support for a controversial claim that this earlier kind of human may have interbred with our ancestors. …

a study published today in the journal Nature by Prof Clive Finlayson of The Gibraltar Museum, Gibraltar, …produce[s] dating results that suggest that a lucky group survived extinction in this part of southern Iberia until at least 28,000 years ago, perhaps even 24,000 years ago. …

The new findings come from Gorham’s Cave, in which stone tools were first discovered more than 50 years ago. Dating of more recently uncovered artefacts, including a series of hearth places all created at the same location within the cave, leaving charcoal remains, now show just how long-lasting the Neanderthal settlement was.

People living there would have had access to diverse plants and animals, sandy plains, woodlands, wetlands and coastline — a rich environment that probably helped the Neanderthals to persist for so long. …

A typical Neanderthal was shorter than modern man with a heavy trunk and a robust and powerful build — perfect for his Ice Age environment.

And he had a big brain too: it is thought possible that he used body decoration, hunted in packs and — by one analysis — had a shorter and wider vocal tract than a modern male human’s that could manage the complex range of sounds needed for speech, albeit at higher pitches. …


Cro-Magnon are the first early Homo sapiens sapiens.

The term “Cro-Magnon” soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. … Cro-Magnon were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporary Neanderthals. … Like Neanderthals, the Cro-Magnon were primarily big-game hunters, killing mammoth, cave bears, horses and reindeer. They would have been nomadic or semi-nomadic, following the annual migration of their prey.


To make it to America, Neanderthal could have used boats, but there is no evidence that they had this technology. It seems to me their lack of boats is another reason their “last stand” was in Gibraltar. They had reached the end of the earth… as they saw it. Despite their large brains, they seem to have lacked the ability to plan ahead:

While Neanderthals mastered complex tasks such as the making of fire, shelters with post holes, and stone tools, there were many Cro-Magnon tools and behaviors Neanderthals seem to have never developed: organized fishing; using fish hooks and fish nets; headgear or hats, shoes, and sewn clothing; needle-and-thread; and long-distance trade.

… Neanderthals also appear to have never used boats or rafts, as evidenced by the lack of Neanderthal fossils from North Africa, yet in stark contrast Homo erectus, their more primitive ancestor, appears to have used rafts or some other sort of boat on occasion. …

Since Neanderthals evidently never used watercraft, but prior and/or arguably more primitive editions of humanity did, there is argument Neanderthals represent a highly specialized side branch of the human tree …

Additionally, Neanderthals evidently had little long-term planning when securing food. French caves show almost no salmon bones during Neanderthal occupancy but large numbers during Cro-Magnon occupancy. In contrast, Cro-Magnons planned for salmon runs months ahead of time, getting enough people together at just the right time and place to catch a lot of fish. Neanderthals appear to have had little to no social organization beyond the immediate family unit.


Another way to get to America, was across the Bering land bridge.

The Bering land bridge is significant for several reasons, not least because it is believed to have enabled human migration to the Americas from Asia about 20,000 years ago.


The Neanderthal as early as 24,000 years ago were in Gibraltar, could a group have also migrated east?

DNA extracted from skeletal remains has shown that Neanderthals roamed some 2000 kilometres further east than previously thought.

Researchers say the genetic sequence of an adolescent Neanderthal found in southern Siberia closely matches that of Neanderthals found in western Europe, suggesting that this close relative of modern humans migrated very long distances.

Svante Pääbo at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and colleagues examined skeletal remains found in the Okladnikov cave in the Altai Mountains and dated as between 30,000 and 38,000 years old . Until now, archaeologists have been unable to determine whether the remains belonged to Neanderthals or another species of extinct hominid because the bones are too fragmented.

Pääbo and his colleagues took 200 milligram samples of bone from the adolescent. After dissolving the mineral component of the bone, the team succeeded in extracting DNA from mitochondria – parts of the cell that produce energy.

After sequencing a short fragment of this DNA, the team compared it with that of several Neanderthals found in Europe. They discovered that it matched DNA recovered from remains found in Belgium almost perfectly. The match was “quite a bit of a surprise”, according to Pääbo, since the new evidence extends the territory of this hominid some 2000 kilometres further east.

“It means that Neanderthals were a bit more adaptable than some people give them credit for,” says Jeffrey McKee at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, US.



Future discoveries may find that Neanderthal did cross by land into America, perhaps even before our own Ancestors did. This would make them “The Ancient Ones” of the Miwok legends. Is “bigfoot” a Neanderthal descendant? We are probably all part Neanderthal descendants.

A genetic analysis of nearly 2,000 people from around the world indicates that such extinct species interbred with the ancestors of modern humans twice, leaving their genes within the DNA of people today.

The discovery, presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on 17 April, adds important new details to the evolutionary history of the human species. And it may help explain the fate of the Neanderthals, who vanished from the fossil record about 30,000 years ago. “It means Neanderthals didn’t completely disappear,” says Jeffrey Long, a genetic anthropologist at the University of New Mexico, whose group conducted the analysis. There is a little bit of Neanderthal leftover in almost all humans, he says. …

Using projected rates of genetic mutation and data from the fossil record, the researchers suggest that the interbreeding happened about 60,000 years ago in the eastern Mediterranean and, more recently, about 45,000 years ago in eastern Asia. …






http://xenophilius.wordpress.com/2011/03/25/evidence-for-neanderthal-in-america/



i love this quote by Maya Angelo it is so inspirational i use this quote when i having a bad day it lifts my spirits up xxHannahxx

After the Holiday Spell for Peace and Balance
*This spell is great to do after the holiday or after stressful events to bring calm and balance back into your life.

You‘ll Need:
Blue or green pastel candle
Soft incense of your liking
Soft music

Take a deep breath and say:

"I am at peace,
and peace is what I seek.
I am in the void, between the worlds
No stress can find me, as time unfurls "

Close your eyes and imagine peaceful things:

A soft falling rain; a sleeping kitten or baby; a gently path through a green forest; a walk along the beach; etc.

Be careful with this spell or you might just fall asleep.

Lady Abigail
Copyright © 11232007


After the Holiday Spell for Peace and Balance  
*This spell is great to do after the holiday or after stressful events to bring calm and balance back into your life. 

You‘ll Need:
  Blue or green pastel candle
 Soft incense of your liking
 Soft music

Take a deep breath and say:

 "I am at peace, 
and peace is what I seek.
I am in the void,  between the worlds
No stress can find me, as time unfurls " 

Close your eyes and imagine peaceful things: 

A soft falling rain; a sleeping kitten or baby; a gently path through a green forest; a walk along the beach; etc. 

Be careful with this spell or you might just fall asleep. 

Lady Abigail
Copyright © 11232007


-> SHARE <- this crew by clicking share below and passing on the SMILE!

If you have a dog you HAVE to get Bully Sticks! Only $0.99 and you can order up to 5! (Regularly $3.99 each!) - Click ♥ http://bit.ly/UWx6AN ♥ to order!

Dancing Moccasins shared a link.

say smthng :))))))

Photo

Chain of Healing - Please continue the chain...
Light and Love of the Goddess --- Lady Patti

“Love is a chain of love as nature is a chain of life” Truman Capote

Each day we come across those that need our blessings of light from within The Goddess to heal a sickness, to heal a sorrow, to heal a loss. To heal…
...
The blessing below I will post it each day so that you may “like” the posting and comments on the healing needs. Add your healing comments and needs to this chain. By liking the post and comment, those in need will see that you thinking of them and sending your healing energies to them.

Please add your comments, wishes and blessings as needed to the Chain of Healing.

Blessed Lady – healer of our pain, source of our strength.
As I light the candle of white, the healing of this heated light
Give this light and healing love to those that are in need.
Blessings and healing light to those as we call out their names
As You are our Light, You are our Strength, You are our source of love
So mote it be.
Lady Patti
Copyright © 12272011


Artwork/photo: Unknown


















You CAN make a living doing what you love! As this beautiful 3 minute video summarizes, life is too short to spend it suffering for money.


What if Money didn't matter

Who here ate too much?

Photo credit: Sarah Sherwood
Aged Wisdom

This time of year, I feel we are somewhat attacked and judged for non-conforming beliefs in the old ways ... So I say to all those of narrow minds: Don't sit in judgment of others, for judgment is only ones personal opinion with the weight of bullshit attached. Unfortunately the smell can’t hide the truth.

By Lady Abigail
Copyright 11232010













Aged Wisdom

This time of year, I feel we are somewhat attacked and judged for non-conforming beliefs in the old ways ... So I say to all those of narrow minds:
 Don't sit in judgment of others, for judgment is only ones personal opinion with the weight of bullshit attached. Unfortunately the smell can’t hide the truth.

Chant to banish bad memories: I call the past to meet the present, that the future may be bright./ I bring myself forth from the dark, and hold me to the light./ Let not the past control my present, let not my future be dark as night./ I meet and greet me with open arms, and move back into the light.
Chant to banish bad memories: I call the past to meet the present, that the future may be bright./ I bring myself forth from the dark, and hold me to the light./ Let not the past control my present, let not my future be dark as night./ I meet and greet me with open arms, and move back into the light.
Blessing to all for the day is done,
 and now comes the clean up fun... <3
Lady Abigail
Wow all is full of holiday cheer... and great fellowship with loved ones... now a hush of peace is heard...next to the TV and Football of course!!! LOLPhoto
<3 Happy Thursday Lovely People <3

☽✪☾ @[304325199597639:274:The Wyse Woman] ☽✪☾

♥ Image Source Google ~ Creator ~ Inspiring and Positive Quotes ♥

An elderly man walks into a confessional. The following conversation ensues:

Man: 'I am 92 years old, have a wonderful wife of 70 years, many children, grandchildren, and great grandchildren. Yesterday, I picked up two college girls, hitch-hiking. We went to a motel, where I had sex with each of them three times.'

Priest: 'Are you sorry for your sins?'

Man: 'What sins?'

Priest: 'What kind of a Catholic are you?'

Man: 'I'm Jewish.'

Priest: 'Then why are you telling me all this?'

Man: 'I'm 92 years old ..... I'm telling everybody!

Hehe!  What a thoughtful pup! ;)

Please understand my silence!

Photo
700 likes for beauty <3 <3

The "Familiar" Cat

What does it mean to have a cat as a "familiar" or animal helper?

A cat totem encourages agility in both body and mind. You will be challenged with new ideas and places. The cat gives you clearer perception. This spirit helper is resourceful, strong and fearless. It will give you courage and confidence.

Examine the colors, character and behaviors of your Cat. Everything about it will reflect in your own life. When a Cat becomes predominant in your life, magic and mystery come alive.

Associated with the Norse Goddess of Fertility Freyja and the Hindu Goddess of Childbirth, Shasthi and of course, the Egyptian Goddess Bastet who takes the form of a cat. 


http://gypsymagicspells.blogspot.com/2008/10/familiar-cat.html

















The "Familiar" Cat

What does it mean to have a cat as a "familiar" or animal helper?

A cat totem encourages agility in both body and mind. You will be challen
ged with new ideas and places. The cat gives you clearer perception. This spirit helper is resourceful, strong and fearless. It will give you courage and confidence.

Examine the colors, character and behaviors of your Cat. Everything about it will reflect in your own life. When a Cat becomes predominant in your life, magic and mystery come alive.

Associated with the Norse Goddess of Fertility Freyja and the Hindu Goddess of Childbirth, Shasthi and of course, the Egyptian Goddess Bastet who takes the form of a cat.


http://gypsymagicspells.blogspot.com/2008/10/familiar-cat.html

I updated the popular version of this so it would say "paw turkey". I hope the original will not mind. Uncaptioned pic on @[10069086619:274:Catster]

-TELhttp://www.rochester.edu/news/show.php?id=4972
John A. Tarduno, Rory D. Cottrell, Francis Nimmo, Julianna Hopkins, Julia Voronov, Austen Erickson, Eric Blackman, Edward R.D. Scott, Robert Mckinley. Evidence for a Dynamo in the Main Group Pallasite Parent Body. Science, 2012 DOI: 10.1126/science.1223932
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6109/939

Image: http://www.meteoriteguy.com/collection/esquel.htm
GEMS FROM SPACE CREATED BY CELESTIAL COLLISION

Only a small fraction of all meteorites found on Earth are pallasites: translucent, olivine crystals embedded in an iron-nickel matrix. Pallasites were first identified as originating from outer space more than 200 years ago. New research from a team of geophysicists using a carbon dioxide laser, a magnetic field, and a sophisticated recording device has shown the likely formation of the pallasites as a collision between an asteroid and a planetary body. 

It was previously assumed that pallasites formed at the boundary between the iron core and the rocky mantle in a planetary body. However a team of geophysicists, led by John Tarduno at the University of Rochester, discovered that they most likely formed when a smaller asteroid crashed into a planetoid about 30 times smaller than Earth. This would have resulted in the materials mixing before solidifying to produce the distinctive meteorites. Tarduno and his team discovered that the tiny metal grains within the olivine were magnetised to a particular direction; previous work had theorised that the iron intruded from the core into the olivine in the mantle. 

The scientists used a carbon dioxide laser at the University of Rochester to heat the metal grains past their Curie temperatures (the point at which a metal loses its magnetisation). The metal grains were then cooled in the presence of a magnetic field to re-magnetise them; at the same time a measuring instrument known as SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) was used to record the data. The team was able to calculate the strength of the past magnetic field and then the rate of cooling. The measurements from the experiment, combined with a computer model, indicated the parent body had a radius of about 200 km, qualifying it as a proto-planet.

For the metal grains within the olivine to be magnetised, the planetary body in which they formed must have had a molten iron core, to create a magnetic field. Temperatures at the core-mantle boundary would have been close to 930°C and too hot for magnetisation to take place. Pallasites therefore would have formed at somewhat shallow depths in the much cooler mantle of the proto-planet. This research also provides further evidence that small celestial bodies can have dynamo activity; a rotating liquid iron core that can create a magnetic field.

The iron-nickel in the pallasites is believed to have originated from the collision with the asteroid, where molten iron from the core of the smaller of the two asteroids was injected into the mantle of the larger body, creating the textures observed in the pallasites. 
 
The image is a piece measuring 210 mm by 190 mm by 5 mm of the Esquel meteorite, which contains the pallasites. The meteorite was discovered in Chubut, Argentina in 1951 as a single mass weighing more than 700 kilograms. 

-TEL

http://www.rochester.edu/news/show.php?id=4972
John A. Tarduno, Rory D. Cottrell, Francis Nimmo, Julianna Hopkins, Julia Voronov, Austen Erickson, Eric Blackman, Edward R.D. Scott, Robert Mckinley. Evidence for a Dynamo in the Main Group Pallasite Parent Body. Science, 2012 DOI: 10.1126/science.1223932
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6109/939

Image: http://www.meteoriteguy.com/collection/esquel.htm












GEMS FROM SPACE CREATED BY CELESTIAL COLLISION

Only a small fraction of all meteorites found on Earth are pallasites: translucent, olivine crystals embedded in
 an iron-nickel matrix. Pallasites were first identified as originating from outer space more than 200 years ago. New research from a team of geophysicists using a carbon dioxide laser, a magnetic field, and a sophisticated recording device has shown the likely formation of the pallasites as a collision between an asteroid and a planetary body.

It was previously assumed that pallasites formed at the boundary between the iron core and the rocky mantle in a planetary body. However a team of geophysicists, led by John Tarduno at the University of Rochester, discovered that they most likely formed when a smaller asteroid crashed into a planetoid about 30 times smaller than Earth. This would have resulted in the materials mixing before solidifying to produce the distinctive meteorites. Tarduno and his team discovered that the tiny metal grains within the olivine were magnetised to a particular direction; previous work had theorised that the iron intruded from the core into the olivine in the mantle.

The scientists used a carbon dioxide laser at the University of Rochester to heat the metal grains past their Curie temperatures (the point at which a metal loses its magnetisation). The metal grains were then cooled in the presence of a magnetic field to re-magnetise them; at the same time a measuring instrument known as SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) was used to record the data. The team was able to calculate the strength of the past magnetic field and then the rate of cooling. The measurements from the experiment, combined with a computer model, indicated the parent body had a radius of about 200 km, qualifying it as a proto-planet.

For the metal grains within the olivine to be magnetised, the planetary body in which they formed must have had a molten iron core, to create a magnetic field. Temperatures at the core-mantle boundary would have been close to 930°C and too hot for magnetisation to take place. Pallasites therefore would have formed at somewhat shallow depths in the much cooler mantle of the proto-planet. This research also provides further evidence that small celestial bodies can have dynamo activity; a rotating liquid iron core that can create a magnetic field.

The iron-nickel in the pallasites is believed to have originated from the collision with the asteroid, where molten iron from the core of the smaller of the two asteroids was injected into the mantle of the larger body, creating the textures observed in the pallasites.

The image is a piece measuring 210 mm by 190 mm by 5 mm of the Esquel meteorite, which contains the pallasites. The meteorite was discovered in Chubut, Argentina in 1951 as a single mass weighing more than 700 kilograms.

-TEL

http://www.rochester.edu/news/show.php?id=4972
John A. Tarduno, Rory D. Cottrell, Francis Nimmo, Julianna Hopkins, Julia Voronov, Austen Erickson, Eric Blackman, Edward R.D. Scott, Robert Mckinley. Evidence for a Dynamo in the Main Group Pallasite Parent Body. Science, 2012 DOI: 10.1126/science.1223932
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6109/939

Image: http://www.meteoriteguy.com/collection/esquel.htm

A NEW PHOTO of our boy, sweet Drake, who is still holding steady!  Also included is more information about the arrest and suspect, plus a little insight behind the dog we all now care deeply about!  ~Cheryl 

Drake washed out after a short career in law enforcement — “He didn’t like looking for drugs,” a former boss said — but last weekend, his bravery was on display. The 5-year-old German shepherd did not back down when pressed to defend his owner’s suburban West Palm Beach home. He was shot at least four times for his bravery.

Drake this evening is struggling to heal after extensive surgery. His owner, Florida Highway Patrol Trooper Bobby Boody, is holding on to hope that the dog who became a perfect fit for him will make a full recovery.

Earlier this evening, Palm Beach County County sheriff’s investigators took a 16-year-old male into custody in connection with the shooting. The teen, whose name was not released because of his age, is facing charges of burglary while armed with a firearm and felony cruelty to animals

Investigators tracked the 16-year-old down because he is wearing an ankle monitor. He is on probation through the Division of Juvenile Justice for burglary and grand theft.

Detective Philip DiMola said the teen confessed to being the shooter. He told investigators he and two friends — also juveniles — knew the house belonged to a law-enforcement officer and targeted it because they believed there were guns and money inside.

“He had no remorse,” DiMola said. “I asked him, ‘Did you think about that dog today?’ He said no.”

Officers were still trying tonight to find the other two juveniles.

Boody had just finished a shift late Sunday when he pulled into his driveway and noticed things amiss — including the absence of Drake’s persistent bark.

He opened the door to his house on a bloody, chaotic mess.

“Quite honestly, I expected to find the dog dead,” Boody, 36, said Wednesday afternoon.

Instead, Boody found Drake on the floor beside his bed. “He was bleeding profusely and when he saw me, he attempted to stand,” said Boody, who lives alone and had to hoist the 100-pound dog into his car and speed him to the nearest emergency vet clinic after alerting authorities to the crime.

A day later, Drake was transferred to Simmons Veterinary Clinic in suburban Lake Worth, where he underwent hours-long surgery.

The wounds indicate Drake was shot at close range, said Ken Simmons, the veterinarian who cared for Drake. One shot cracked the bone of the dog’s brow, tearing a hole through his tongue, another bullet broke his front leg and yet another went through his hind quarters.

The teen in custody told investigators that the dog walked into the master bedroom and that he fired at the animal out of fear, DiMola said. The dog whimpered and cried, but did not back off, prompting the teen to fire again, DiMola said.

It appears Drake made a valiant stand at the house, Boody said.

“He’s a tough dog — that’s for sure,” Boody said. “I’m confident that he’ll recover.”

Drake worked for awhile as a patrol dog with another trooper. But when it became apparent that drug sniffing wasn’t his thing, he had to retire. That’s when Boody, a former handler in the department, stepped forward.

“He needed a place to go, so I took him in,” said Boody, a trooper since 2001. Despite Drake’s early reputation as a difficult personality, the two hit it off well, Boody said: “He needed a strong personality.”

It appears Drake was both tenacious and lucky. The dog was born on July 7, 2007, or 7/7/7, Boody noted.

Boody’s boss, FHP Sgt. Randy Kraus, reflected on Drake’s short tenure: “He didn’t like looking for drugs … but he’s still got it in him.

“Once a cop, always a cop.”

By Sonja Isger, Julius Whigham II

Palm Beach Post Staff Writer

Newslink: 
http://m.palmbeachpost.com/news/news/crime-law/troopers-german-shepherd-defends-home-from-intrude/nTCmP/

ORIGINAL THREAD with donation information:
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=385433871533705&set=a.131945290215899.31633.131817526895342&type=1&theater


A NEW PHOTO of our boy, sweet Drake, who is still holding steady! Also included is more information about the arrest and suspect, plus a little insight behind the dog we all now care deeply about! ~Cheryl

Drake washed out after a short career in law enforcement — “He didn’t like looking for drugs,” a former boss said — but last weekend, his bravery was on display. The 5-year-old German shepher
d did not back down when pressed to defend his owner’s suburban West Palm Beach home. He was shot at least four times for his bravery.

Drake this evening is struggling to heal after extensive surgery. His owner, Florida Highway Patrol Trooper Bobby Boody, is holding on to hope that the dog who became a perfect fit for him will make a full recovery.

Earlier this evening, Palm Beach County County sheriff’s investigators took a 16-year-old male into custody in connection with the shooting. The teen, whose name was not released because of his age, is facing charges of burglary while armed with a firearm and felony cruelty to animals

Investigators tracked the 16-year-old down because he is wearing an ankle monitor. He is on probation through the Division of Juvenile Justice for burglary and grand theft.

Detective Philip DiMola said the teen confessed to being the shooter. He told investigators he and two friends — also juveniles — knew the house belonged to a law-enforcement officer and targeted it because they believed there were guns and money inside.

“He had no remorse,” DiMola said. “I asked him, ‘Did you think about that dog today?’ He said no.”

Officers were still trying tonight to find the other two juveniles.

Boody had just finished a shift late Sunday when he pulled into his driveway and noticed things amiss — including the absence of Drake’s persistent bark.

He opened the door to his house on a bloody, chaotic mess.

“Quite honestly, I expected to find the dog dead,” Boody, 36, said Wednesday afternoon.

Instead, Boody found Drake on the floor beside his bed. “He was bleeding profusely and when he saw me, he attempted to stand,” said Boody, who lives alone and had to hoist the 100-pound dog into his car and speed him to the nearest emergency vet clinic after alerting authorities to the crime.

A day later, Drake was transferred to Simmons Veterinary Clinic in suburban Lake Worth, where he underwent hours-long surgery.

The wounds indicate Drake was shot at close range, said Ken Simmons, the veterinarian who cared for Drake. One shot cracked the bone of the dog’s brow, tearing a hole through his tongue, another bullet broke his front leg and yet another went through his hind quarters.

The teen in custody told investigators that the dog walked into the master bedroom and that he fired at the animal out of fear, DiMola said. The dog whimpered and cried, but did not back off, prompting the teen to fire again, DiMola said.

It appears Drake made a valiant stand at the house, Boody said.

“He’s a tough dog — that’s for sure,” Boody said. “I’m confident that he’ll recover.”

Drake worked for awhile as a patrol dog with another trooper. But when it became apparent that drug sniffing wasn’t his thing, he had to retire. That’s when Boody, a former handler in the department, stepped forward.

“He needed a place to go, so I took him in,” said Boody, a trooper since 2001. Despite Drake’s early reputation as a difficult personality, the two hit it off well, Boody said: “He needed a strong personality.”

It appears Drake was both tenacious and lucky. The dog was born on July 7, 2007, or 7/7/7, Boody noted.

Boody’s boss, FHP Sgt. Randy Kraus, reflected on Drake’s short tenure: “He didn’t like looking for drugs … but he’s still got it in him.

“Once a cop, always a cop.”

By Sonja Isger, Julius Whigham II

Palm Beach Post Staff Writer

Newslink:
http://m.palmbeachpost.com/news/news/crime-law/troopers-german-shepherd-defends-home-from-intrude/nTCmP/

ORIGINAL THREAD with donation information:
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=385433871533

Thanks Daniel!
Every time you do a good deed you shine the light a little farther into the dark. And the thing is, when you’re gone that light is going to keep shining on, pushing the shadows back. - Charles de Lint

Affirmation
I raise my arms, my heart, my soul to the Goddess


For Today and always I will be thankful

…thankful for what I have, who I am and all that I can be.

Thankful for those that love me and for those that I love back,

Thankful for the Love and Light in my Life.

Today and every day I am thankful for all things…For the Earth, For Family, For Friends, For Loves,

And most of all

I am Thankful for the Mother Goddess and Her Light and what it brings…. Love.



Thank You Dear Lady
For all that you have bestowed upon me
My loves, my families, my friends, my home,
For my life here with you
Thankful that I am blessed with these gifts and with your Love
May I continue to understand and be blessed with these gifts each day
Blessed Love and Light to my Lady.
With All my Love Dear Lady I am grateful to You
So Mote it Be


Thank You Dear Family for your Love and Light – Lady Patti

Artist: Unknown
Affirmation 
I raise my arms, my heart, my soul to the Goddess


For Today and always I will be thankful 

…thankful for what I have, who I am and all that I can be. 

Thankful for those that love me and for those that I love back, 

Thankful for the Love and Light in my Life. 

Today and every day I am thankful for all things…For the Earth, For Family, For Friends, For Loves, 

And most of all

I am Thankful for the Mother Goddess and Her Light and what it brings…. Love.



Thank You Dear Lady 
For all that you have bestowed upon me
My loves, my families, my friends, my home, 
For my life here with you
Thankful that I am blessed with these gifts and with your Love
May I continue to understand and be blessed with these gifts each day
Blessed Love and Light to my Lady. 
With All my Love Dear Lady I am grateful to You
So Mote it Be 


Thank You Dear Family for your Love and Light – Lady Patti

Artist: Unknown


















L


From a friend:

"And if the Native Americans had served the Pilgrims mule, we'd all be getting a piece of ass on Thanksgiving."
From a friend: 

"And if the Native Americans had served the Pilgrims mule, we'd all be getting a piece of ass on Thanksgiving."











Photo

Don't Throw The Peels instead use them to:::

Make a Citrus Peels Vinegar Natural Cleaner - 

http://fountainavenuekitchen.com/orange-vinegar-a-green-cleaner/

Make Candied Citrus Peels - 

http://www.closetcooking.com/2011/02/candied-orange-peel.html

Use them to infuse rice or quinoa with citrus flavor by adding dried peels to the water during boiling/steaming. Peels may be eaten or removed before serving.

Use them to make powders by grinding peels with a coffee grinder or mortar and pestle and sprinkle over baked goods (combine with sugar for sweetness), use in marinades and rubs, or anything else you can think of.

Mix orange or lemon peels into homemade tea blends or just add to green or black tea as it's steeping.

Use them as a Citrus Peel as Fire Starter - 

http://www.realsimple.com/new-uses-for-old-things/new-uses-summer/citrus-peels-00000000016212/index.html

Make a Body & Soul: Citrus Scrub -  

http://www.motherearthliving.com/natural-beauty/citrus-scrub-zmrz12aszdeb.aspx

To make your own Citrus Scouring Scrub you will need the following: 3 tbsp dried, ground citrus peels 3 tbsp borax 5 tbsp baking soda Combine all ingredients in an old shaker container (such as an old parmesan container) and sprinkle wherever you needed.  Use a wet sponge or cleaning rag to scrub over the area where you sprinkled the cleaner.  Wipe up all of the cleaner.

Make Orange Peel Wine - 

http://www.cookingchanneltv.com/recipes/laura-calder/orange-peel-wine-recipe/index.html

Make Orange Peel Sorbet Recipe - 

http://stepbystepgourmet.blogspot.com/2012/02/orange-peel-sorbet.html












Don't Throw The Peels instead use them to:::

Make a Citrus Peels Vinegar Natural Cleaner -

http://fountainavenuekitchen.com/orange-vinegar-a-green-cleaner/

Make Candied Citrus Peels -

http://www.closetcooking.com/2011/02/candied-orange-peel.html

Use them to infuse rice or quinoa with citrus flavor by adding dried peels to the water during boiling/steaming. Peels may be eaten or removed before serving.

Use them to make powders by grinding peels with a coffee grinder or mortar and pestle and sprinkle over baked goods (combine with sugar for sweetness), use in marinades and rubs, or anything else you can think of.

Mix orange or lemon peels into homemade tea blends or just add to green or black tea as it's steeping.

Use them as a Citrus Peel as Fire Starter -

http://www.realsimple.com/new-uses-for-old-things/new-uses-summer/citrus-peels-00000000016212/index.html

Make a Body & Soul: Citrus Scrub -

http://www.motherearthliving.com/natural-beauty/citrus-scrub-zmrz12aszdeb.aspx

To make your own Citrus Scouring Scrub you will need the following: 3 tbsp dried, ground citrus peels 3 tbsp borax 5 tbsp baking soda Combine all ingredients in an old shaker container (such as an old parmesan container) and sprinkle wherever you needed. Use a wet sponge or cleaning rag to scrub over the area where you sprinkled the cleaner. Wipe up all of the cleaner.

Make Orange Peel Wine -

http://www.cookingchanneltv.com/recipes/laura-calder/orange-peel-wine-recipe/index.html

Make Orange Peel Sorbet Recipe -

http://stepbystepgourmet.blogspot.com/2012/02/orange-peel-sorbet.html

Hungry for more Breaking Dawn - Part 2? Get your fill and see it in theaters all weekend! http://bit.ly/BD2-tix



Hungry for more @[123422907786627:128:Breaking Dawn - Part 2]? Get your fill and see it in theaters all weekend! http://bit.ly/BD2-tix
A Meditation and Prayer for All

www.sun-gazing.com

Please SHARE
I'm sending you an Angel to watch over you.
I'm sending you an Angel to brighten up your day.
I'm sending you an Angel to lessen your load.
I'm sending you an Angel to help you with any problem.
I'm sending you an Angel to give you hope.
I'm sending you an Angel to guide you through the right path and to heal any pain.
I'm sending you an Angel to hold your hand, to keep you safe, to give you love, to protect you and wrap you in its wings.
Have a blessed day! <3
I know that we Pagans had our Thanksgiving at Mabon - but to all of the American page followers, Happy Thanksgiving today. May the Goddess bless you all with love and happiness. )O(

~ Leandra





Anger Management Techniques

Read about anger management and learn why you need to count to ten.
Let me first ask you what do you think anger is? As a matter of fact any kind of anger is a bad spell. It is the dose of negative energy, which infects you and those around you. Although to be angry – is human. The art of anger management is to learn to release the negaive energy without harming anyone. It is just to let off the steam. Easier said than done? Yes it is.

There are a lot of different anger management techniques but only two have proved to be working. We call it: Walkaway technique and Count to ten technique.

The both ways are easy to implement and they can be used simultaneously. The Walkaway means to leave the scene of “battle”, to avoid the source of anger. For example, you are talking with a person and your conversation turns in a negative way. You feel that you are going to burst in anger. All you do is say: “Lets discuss this topic when both of us get calm” and just walk away. Pause the conversation to 5 minutes and return to it when you feel calm. You will be surprised about the results.

The other technique is Count to ten. You have probably heard of or even used this technique. Did not work for you? Change the approach! Let us think about it this way: it is a special kind of simple and short meditation. What is a meditation? An exercise of concentrating your mind to a certain object. The object of this exercise is to reach number Ten. Do not think about anything else, do not think about anger, do not think about the insult. Your goal is just to reach 10. It is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. Count slowly, breath deeply. After you count to ten, you will find the anger flying away. A wonderful feeling of freedom.
I suggest that you use Walkaway anger management technique and Count to ten simultaneously. This will make you a happy person and you will see your relationships improved.

http://www.wicca.in/anger-management-techniques/

















Anger Management Techniques

Read about anger management and learn why you need to count to ten.
Let me first ask you what do you think anger is? As a matter of
 fact any kind of anger is a bad spell. It is the dose of negative energy, which infects you and those around you. Although to be angry – is human. The art of anger management is to learn to release the negaive energy without harming anyone. It is just to let off the steam. Easier said than done? Yes it is.

There are a lot of different anger management techniques but only two have proved to be working. We call it: Walkaway technique and Count to ten technique.

The both ways are easy to implement and they can be used simultaneously. The Walkaway means to leave the scene of “battle”, to avoid the source of anger. For example, you are talking with a person and your conversation turns in a negative way. You feel that you are going to burst in anger. All you do is say: “Lets discuss this topic when both of us get calm” and just walk away. Pause the conversation to 5 minutes and return to it when you feel calm. You will be surprised about the results.

The other technique is Count to ten. You have probably heard of or even used this technique. Did not work for you? Change the approach! Let us think about it this way: it is a special kind of simple and short meditation. What is a meditation? An exercise of concentrating your mind to a certain object. The object of this exercise is to reach number Ten. Do not think about anything else, do not think about anger, do not think about the insult. Your goal is just to reach 10. It is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. Count slowly, breath deeply. After you count to ten, you will find the anger flying away. A wonderful feeling of freedom.
I suggest that you use Walkaway anger management technique and Count to ten simultaneously. This will make you a happy person and you will see your relationships improved.

http://www.wicca.in/anger-management-techniques/

Who's excited for The Hobbit!? http://filmtrailers.net/film/the-hobbit-an-unexpected-journey


















Happy Thanksgiving dear family. I hope you are able to spend it with loved ones, in spirit if not in person.

Brightest Blessings,
Lady Julie

Giving thanks today for those that serve.  As we sit around having family dinners, know that we appreciate not only your sacrifice in order to keep us safe, but the sacrifice that your family makes as well.  ~Jean

"I am going to send an angel in front of you, to guard you on the way..."

From fb.com/1BoyUSO
► www.knowledgeoftoday.org/2012/03/think-for-yourself-question-everything.html — The key to success, is integrity, not pleasing everybody.

“Success is one percent inspiration, ninety eight perspiration and two percent attention to detail.” -Phil Dunphy



Pagan Liberal and Utah Pagan Alli shared a link.
http://www.patheos.com/blogs/agora/2012/11/wikipedia-vs-pagans/

* On this day of giving thanks and saying thank you for all the blessings we have been given in life. We ask you to share some of your blessings, what you are thankful for, and the magick in your life. 

In love peace and light,
Lady Abigail & Ravensgrove Coven

* On this day of giving thanks and saying thank you for all the blessings we have been given in life. We ask you to share some of your blessings, what you are thankful for, and the magick in your life. 

In love peace and light,
Lady Abigail & Ravensgrove Coven

Green Man Jewelry box













Green Man Jewelry box

Photo
Who else can relate?  Every year, lol, every year.
Oh that is horrible! Laughing so hard!
30 days from today! (34 days 'til Christmas!)

Good Morning Smile,
Lady Abigail


For more fun: CHECKOUT ---> Sick laugh

Cybill Shepherd thanking the Goddess after winning Best Actress TV Series at the 1996 Golden Globes.

Photo
www.sun-gazing.com

Please SHARE and Friend/Subscribe :)

I saw this on "7 foods you should never feed your cats". The X's mean NO, the checks mean in moderation. Which is why at Humans that live with their Anipals have to keep a watchful eye especially preparing a holiday dinner where food is everywhere, you don't have to feed it to them...they'll just steal it! There are many things missing on this lists Please leave us any information you think will help keep our catpanions stay happy this Thanksgiving. 

Article: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/28/foods-bad-for-cats_n_1733277.html













Photo
Happy Thanksgiving from the GSDC! Whether you are celebrating Thanksgiving or not, I just wanted to take the opportunity to say that I am thankful for all of you....we are not just a community here, we are family! :)
Cheryl
Photo



Happy genocide as a foundation of a nation day.... Here's to 98% of the indigenous peoples being wiped out in less then a decade by germ war fare, rape and murder.

Thanksgiving is a time to remember all that we have.. And the Genocide that it took to get it!

Welcome to your Holiday Unschooling Session w/ Jesse V!

~The Dark Side of Thanksgiving~

The first Thanksgiving was a 'Harvest Festival' held in 1621 by the Pilgrims and their Native American neighbors in the new world. It was very much like the Harvest Festivals that were celebrated for centuries in the old world. This part is full of Love and Light and Respect.

But what seems to be left out during this holiday celebration is a distorted picture of the history between the European colonists and their 'descendants' and the Native American Indians. It was the descendants of the Pilgrims and other early colonist who repaid the Native Indians by stealing their land and killing them to the point of almost genocide.

Today while many of us celebrate this holiday of feast, family and friends, to the Native American Indian, today is a day of Mourning. Please join Our page by sending Healing Energy to the Native Indian People, who's Magick and knowledge of the Spirit world is unmatched.
Happy genocide as a foundation of a nation day.... Here's to 98% of the indigenous peoples being wiped out in less then a decade by germ war fare, rape and murder. 

Thanksgiving is a time to remember all that we have..  And the Genocide that it took to get it! 

Welcome to your Holiday @[180917580028:274:Unschooling] Session w/ Jesse V!

~The Dark Side of Thanksgiving~

The first Thanksgiving was a 'Harvest Festival' held in 1621 by the Pilgrims and their Native American neighbors in the new world. It was very much like the Harvest Festivals that were celebrated for centuries in the old world. This part is full of Love and Light and Respect.

But what seems to be left out during this holiday celebration is a distorted picture of the history between the European colonists and their 'descendants' and the Native American Indians. It was the descendants of the Pilgrims and other early colonist who repaid the Native Indians by stealing their land and killing them to the point of almost genocide.

Today while many of us celebrate this holiday of feast, family and friends, to the Native American Indian, today is a day of Mourning. Please join Our page by sending Healing Energy to the Native Indian People, who's Magick and knowledge of the Spirit world is unmatched.















Happy Thanksgiving!
Happy Thanksgiving to all in the USA & elsewhere who are celebrating today & this weekend!  Wild Turkeys feasting next to my house in the forest.











Happy Thanksgiving to all in the USA & elsewhere who are celebrating today & this weekend! Wild Turkeys feasting next to my house in the forest.

PhotoGotta share this one...

Utah Pagan Alli shared Utah Pagan Alliance's photo.
Skin-walker:: In some Native American legends, a skin-walker is a person with the supernatural ability to turn into any animal he or she desires. To be able to transform, legend sometimes requires that the skinwalker does wear a pelt of the animal, though this is not always considered necessary.

There are a few legends to the roots of the skinwalker. One such comes from the long walk. During this time, Skinwalkers would shapeshift to flee the horrors of living under the torture of the white man. It made them faster and the soldiers were unable to detect them running.

Another was that the skinwalker was started by the poor community in the old days. At night a skinwalker would dress up in ceremonial dress and go from door to door. The more well-off people would leave something outside their hogan for the skinwalker. Eventually with times changing people forgot about the skinwalker and stopped leaving things for them. This led to resentment among the poor and they turned on those who forgot them. And now they exist as a hateful people out for revenge.

Finally there are those who tell of the skinwalker as a medicine man. It was started by the Lakota, when they would dress up like wolves to hunt the bison. The tradition made its way to the Navajo people and it was adopted by the medicine men. However, in this legend it does not explain how the Skinwalker became full of hate for his fellow tribe.

Many Navajos believe the Anasazi had a lot to do with the witchcraft that runs in their community. Thus, Anasazi ruins and graves are strictly taboo. It's said that a skinwalker will use the bones of the Anasazi for their charms.

According to Raymond Friday Locke in the Book of the Navajo, the practice of animal emulation began with a hunter who thought of using the head of a deer so that he could approach them more closely to kill them. He was unsuccessful until the Gods came and showed him not only how to make the mask but how to emulate the animal. The practice of wearing the skins of the deer and emulating them began for the purpose of hunting. Locke also links the practice of witchcraft involving animal emulation and shape shifting to the Navajo folk tale of Coyote's wife. Believing that Coyote had been murdered, his wife takes the form of a bear and begins to curse and slay her husband's killers with witchcraft. The association of skin-walkers with Coyote is a prevalent belief in both their common usage of coyote skins and reputations of being tricksters. Skinwalkers are known as a Native American version of a Loup-garou. Even children have been known to become a skinwalker.

The Navaho people have a very strong relationship bond with Mother Earth and the plant and animal kingdoms that were so much a part of their everyday lives. Certain animals were more sacred to some individuals, families and tribes. These animals could be said to bless, heal or guide the people and become totem animals.

Totem animals are honored with their likeness in the dress, dance, music and artwork of the people. The traits and characteristics of the totem animals could be gifted to the people who developed a deep friendship with the spirits of these helpful creatures. Some individuals developed such a deep connection with nature and her magic that they could talk with the plants and animals and bring knowledge of medicine and other healing arts to their tribes. These few adepts became medicine men, healers, or wise ones.

Medicine men were known to be able to travel to other states of being. It was through the gifts of their totem animals that this travel was made. They were often seen wearing the skin of the animal that granted them this power and would sometimes be seen in animal form.

Often ancestors and heroes would appear as animals important or sacred to the family or tribe, or as an animal the individual was known for. People especially reported seeing these strangely human animals when receiving good fortune or divine messages. Some would hear the animals speak to them, act as a human would or witness impossible colors or breeds that do not exist.

Like the folk and nature religions in other parts of the world are called witches, these sacred beliefs are greatly misunderstood and demonized by a fearful society. To use the term skin-walker to speak of violence, hatred, witchcraft and demons is more provocative than to understand the path of a healer, a wise one or a medicine man.
Skin-walker:: In some Native American legends, a skin-walker is a person with the supernatural ability to turn into any animal he or she desires. To be able to
transform, legend sometimes requires that the skinwalker does wear a pelt of the animal, though this is not always considered necessary.

There are a few legends to the roots of the skinwalker. One such comes from the long walk. During this time, Skinwalkers would shapeshift to flee the horrors of living under the torture of the white man. It made them faster and the soldiers were unable to detect them running.

Another was that the skinwalker was started by the poor community in the old days. At night a skinwalker would dress up in ceremonial dress and go from door to door. The more well-off people would leave something outside their hogan for the skinwalker. Eventually with times changing people forgot about the skinwalker and stopped leaving things for them. This led to resentment among the poor and they turned on those who forgot them. And now they exist as a hateful people out for revenge.

Finally there are those who tell of the skinwalker as a medicine man. It was started by the Lakota, when they would dress up like wolves to hunt the bison. The tradition made its way to the Navajo people and it was adopted by the medicine men. However, in this legend it does not explain how the Skinwalker became full of hate for his fellow tribe.

Many Navajos believe the Anasazi had a lot to do with the witchcraft that runs in their community. Thus, Anasazi ruins and graves are strictly taboo. It's said that a skinwalker will use the bones of the Anasazi for their charms.

According to Raymond Friday Locke in the Book of the Navajo, the practice of animal emulation began with a hunter who thought of using the head of a deer so that he could approach them more closely to kill them. He was unsuccessful until the Gods came and showed him not only how to make the mask but how to emulate the animal. The practice of wearing the skins of the deer and emulating them began for the purpose of hunting. Locke also links the practice of witchcraft involving animal emulation and shape shifting to the Navajo folk tale of Coyote's wife. Believing that Coyote had been murdered, his wife takes the form of a bear and begins to curse and slay her husband's killers with witchcraft. The association of skin-walkers with Coyote is a prevalent belief in both their common usage of coyote skins and reputations of being tricksters. Skinwalkers are known as a Native American version of a Loup-garou. Even children have been known to become a skinwalker.

The Navaho people have a very strong relationship bond with Mother Earth and the plant and animal kingdoms that were so much a part of their everyday lives. Certain animals were more sacred to some individuals, families and tribes. These animals could be said to bless, heal or guide the people and become totem animals.

Totem animals are honored with their likeness in the dress, dance, music and artwork of the people. The traits and characteristics of the totem animals could be gifted to the people who developed a deep friendship with the spirits of these helpful creatures. Some individuals developed such a deep connection with nature and her magic that they could talk with the plants and animals and bring knowledge of medicine and other healing arts to their tribes. These few adepts became medicine men, healers, or wise ones.

Medicine men were known to be able to travel to other states of being. It was through the gifts of their totem animals that this travel was made. They were often seen wearing the skin of the animal that granted them this power and would sometimes be seen in animal form.

Often ancestors and heroes would appear as animals important or sacred to the family or tribe, or as an animal the individual was known for. People especially reported seeing these strangely human animals when receiving good fortune or divine messages. Some would hear the animals speak to them, act as a human would or witness impossible colors or breeds that do not exist.

Like the folk and nature religions in other parts of the world are called witches, these sacred beliefs are greatly misunderstood and demonized by a fearful society. To use the term skin-walker to speak of violence, hatred, witchcraft and demons is more provocative than to understand the path of a healer, a wise one or a medicine man.

I've already seen 3 people so far quoting Bible passages, pushing Jesus, and one even saying that we should be thankful for this holiday because it is a time when the Christian God saved this land by Christianizing our people.
So, I am re-posting the rules for this page for everyone who has joined us recently. I don't care if you find the rules "hateful" and "intolerant". If people started coming in here pushing the arts of ballet on us, you can bet your ass this picture would show Jesus in a tutu as well.
Leave all Gods and religions at the door before commenting in here.
We are a Native American traditionalist page. Respect that
As of today these are officially the rules for Dancing Moccasins. 
This goes for Buddha, Mohammed, Moses, Krishna.. so on and so forth. From now on the only Gods in existence, on this page, will be the Native Gods of North America. Everything else is still across the seas and worlds away from us. Anyone who does not follow the rules will be banned.










As of today these are officially the rules for Dancing Moccasins. 
This goes for Buddha, Mohammed, Moses, Krishna.. so on and so forth. From now on the only God
s in existence, on this page, will be the Native Gods of North America. Everything else is still across the seas and worlds away from us. Anyone who does not follow the rules will be banned.

Do you also like this?  :D
You can find it here: http://amzn.to/TQVQDL
Photo



George Takei and Wendy Whipple Fitzgerald shared Ivor Putnam's video: Nov 19, 2012 10:26pm.


How to get your cat inside. This cheered me up so much
Length: ‎0:48
This week, little boys and little girls around the country will don stereotypical pilgrim and Native American costumes to act out the happy story of the first Thanksgiving harvest. But some Native Americans don't remember it as fondly. For better or worse, Native Americans have become part of Thanksgiving lore.




While many paintings of “the First Thanksgiving” show a single long table with several Pilgrims and a few Native people, there were actually twice as many Wampanoag people as colonists. It is unlikely that everyone could have been accommodated at one table. Rather, Wampanoag leaders like Massasoit and his advisors were most likely entertained in the home of Plymouth Colony’s governor, William Bradford.

Read more:http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/22/the-wampanoag-side-of-the-first-thanksgiving-story-64076 http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/22/the-wampanoag-side-of-the-first-thanksgiving-story-64076#ixzz2CzMvaDZL






Turkey done.. now time for Desert!!   Well in photos for sure. .! LOL

Photo


♠Sintra - Portugal - inverted tower / Well of Eternity . ♠ 

From the darkness to the light. 

An underground tunnel with a spiral staircase, supported by carved columns, down to the bottom of the well through nine landings. The nine hole round landings, separated by fifteen steps, evoke references to Dante’s Divine Comedy, and may represent the nine circles of hell, paradise, or purgatory.
The well is connected to laberíticas caves that lead to a spooky garden surrounded by a lake.

[source : http://cristimoise.wordpress.com/2012/08/02/the-inverted-tower-sintra-portugal/ "











♠Sintra - Portugal - inverted tower / Well of Eternity . ♠

From the darkness to the light.

An underground tunnel with a spiral staircase, supported by carve
d columns, down to the bottom of the well through nine landings. The nine hole round landings, separated by fifteen steps, evoke references to Dante’s Divine Comedy, and may represent the nine circles of hell, paradise, or purgatory.
The well is connected to laberíticas caves that lead to a spooky garden surrounded by a lake.

[source : http://cristimoise.wordpress.com/2012/08/02/the-inverted-tower-sintra-portugal/ "

It is a history many in America are uncomfortable talking about, or even acknowledging at all.
The story of how the Pilgrims gathered with Native Americans for a feast on what is now widely considered to be the first day of thanks in "America" – before the nation itself was even founded – underscores our misguided notion that the country was entirely founded on boundless, nonindigenous strength, determination, wit and hardiness.

Thanksgiving evening. Good Night!
Thanksgiving evening.  Good Night!















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